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ENGLAND
Samuel Pepys
Elizabeth I
London's Underworld
Fleet Marriages.
The Cries of London
Updated.




A foggy day in London Town Had me low and had me down. I viewed the morning with alarm, The British Museum had lost its charm. How long, I wondered, could this thing last? But the age of miracles hadn't passed, For, suddenly, I saw you there And through foggy London town the sun was shining everywhere.

-- Ira Gershwin 1937



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February Week 3
Posted on Jun 10, 2002 - 04:31 AM by Bill McCann

This page provides daily updates on past events and anniversaries during the Third week of February. The events included are those that either happened in London or had an effect, one way or another, on the lives of Londoners.


Daily updates on Events during the Third week


Below are the events and anniversaries for this week both about London and Londoners and Outside London.

The archive for these pages has been arranged in a series of monthly Digests. To speed up navigation, these have been further divided into four weekly instalments. These pages are all comprehensively interlinked.

Each Section has its own background page which provides additional and in-depth information about many of the events and people in the daily listings. They are intended to both amuse and inform and can be found at Gazette Briefings and Historical Anecdotes .

Links to the anniversaries and events in the other weeks of the month are given in the following table whilst links to the other months of the year can be found at the bottom of the page.

First WeekSecond WeekFinal Week

London and Londoners

15th

1711, Thursday February 15, Thomas Ridge Member for Poole was expelled from the House of Commons for frauds in the supply of beer to the fleet. He owned a large brewery Queen's Cooper at Portsmouth.
1723, Friday February 15, Viscount Barrington Member for Berwick-upon-Tweed was expelled from the House of Commons for involvement in a Lottery held in Hanover but organized in London. The House declared it illegal.
1748, Sunday February 15, Birth of the philosopher and social reformer Jeremy Bentham, in London.
1853, Tuesday February 15, A railway line between Willesden and Kew was opened. It was called the North and South Western Junction Railway and eventually became part of the North London Line.
1861, Friday February 15, Birth of the mathematician and philosopher Alfred North Whitehead, in London.
1910, Tuesday February 15, The Failure of the Asquith government to get its budget through the House of Lords left the Treasury 10 million in arrears and provoked a political crisis.
1912, Thursday February 15, A Labour amendment proposing a minimum wage was rejected in the House of Commons.
1916, Tuesday February 15, A Royal proclamation banned paper and tobacco imports.
1928, Thursday February 15, Death of the statesman and Prime Minister H. H. Asquith.
1929, Friday February 15, Birth of the racing driver Graham Hill, in Hampstead.
1931, Sunday February 15, Birth of the actress Claire Bloom[Blume], in London.
1925, Sunday February 15, London Zoo announced that it would install lights to cheer up fogged-in animals.
1951, Thursday February 15, Birth of the actress Jane Seymour [Joyce Frankenburg], in London.
1955, Tuesday February 15, The Government unveiled plans to construct 12 nuclear power stations in the next decade, at a cost of 300 million.
1970, Sunday February 15, Death of the Air Chief Marshall Lord Dowding.
1971, Monday February 15, Britain adopted the decimal currency system.

16th

1587, Thursday February 16, The poet, soldier and Statesman Phillip Sidney was finally given a hero's funeral four months after his death in battle. His family had taken that long to raise the money to pay for it. 700 mourners, including the Lord Mayor and led by 32 poor men, accompanied the body from the Aldgate to St Paul's.
1659, Wednesday February 16, The first British cheque ( for 400) was written by Nicholas Vanacker in London.
1751, Saturday February 16, Thomas Gray's Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard was published.
1779, Tuesday February 16, Death of English organist and composer William Boyce.
1822, Saturday February 16, Birth of the English scientist and founder of eugenics Francis Galton.
1824, Monday February 16, John Wilson Croker convened a meeting to establish "a Club for scientists, and literary men and artists." It became the Athanaeum.
1857, Monday February 16, James Sadleir Member for Tipperary was expelled from the House of Commons for absconding after arrest for fraudulent conversion. He had abstracted 250000 of stock from the Tipperary Joint-Stock Bank for his brother's use.
1876, Wednesday February 16, Birth of the English historian George Macauley Trevelyan.
1900, Friday February 16, Publication of Winston Churchill's first novel, Savrola.
1924, Saturday February 16, A strike by dockers paralyzes every port in Britain.
1926, Tuesday February 16, Birth of the film director John Schlesinger in London.
1943, Tuesday February 16, Birth of the danseur noble and Royal Ballet Director Anthony Dowell.
1946, Saturday February 16, Birth of the British actor Ian Lavender.
1956, Thursday February 16, The House of Commons voted to abolish the death penalty.
1957, Saturday February 16, Death of the politician Leslie Hore-Belisha, [Lord Halifax], minister of Transport who introduced driving tests and the Highway Code.
1965, Tuesday February 16, A government report recommended closing half of Britain's railway network.
1967, Thursday February 16, The Musical fiddler on the roof premiered in London.
1972, Wednesday February 16, There were power cuts across Britain, as power stations ran out of coal during the miners strike.
1990, Friday February 16, Wives of Royal Navy seamen protested over a decision to allow Wrens to go to sea.

17th

1634, Monday February 17, The Puritan William Prynne was tried in Star Chamber for publishing his pamphlet Histrio-mastix: The Players Scourge.
1769, Saturday February 17, John Wilkes Member for Middlesex was again expelled from the House of Commons. Although returned as a member despite his previous expulsion the House resolved that he "was and is incapable of being elected a Member to serve in the present Parliament.".
1776, Saturday February 17, The first volume of Gibbon's Decline & Fall of Roman Empire was published.
1883, Saturday February 17, The Vacant/Engaged toilet door bolt was patented by A Ashwell. They were manufactured by C Cross & Co. of Herne Hill.
1916, Thursday February 17, The government of Lloyd George appealed to people to stop using motor cars and motor cycles for pleasure.
1934, Saturday February 17, Birth of the English actor Alan Bates.
1938, Thursday February 17, John Logie Baird demonstrated a large-screen prototype colour television.
1944, Thursday February 17, Birth of the Labour politician Bernie Grant.
1948, Tuesday February 17, The House of Commons passed the Representation of the People bill.
1958, Monday February 17, The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) was formed in London.
1972, Thursday February 17, The House of Commons voted in favour of Britain joining the Common Market.
1980, Sunday February 17, Death of the English painter Graham Sutherland.

18th

1478, Wednesday February 18, George, Duke of Clarence, impeached for treason by his brothers Edward IV and Richard III, was secretly drowned in a butt of Malmsey at the Tower.
1503, Saturday February 18, Following the death of his brother, Arthur, Henry Tudor was created Prince of Wales.
1517, Wednesday February 18, Birth of Mary I, at Greenwich.
1559, Saturday February 18, Birth of the naturalised English classical scholar and theologian Isaac Casaubon.
1601, Wednesday February 18, Augustine Philips, a share owner in Lord Chamberlain's Men was deposed by Privy Council on account of the play Richard II.
1609, Saturday February 18, Birth of the lord chancellor Edward Hyde (Earl of Clarendon).
1821, Sunday February 18, The New Observer was launched. It became the Sunday Times on 20 October.
1874, Wednesday February 18, Benjamin Disraeli formed his second ministry.
1876, Friday February 18, A direct telegraph link was set up between Britain and New Zealand.
1888, Saturday February 18, Birth of the English actress Gladys Cooper, in Lewisham.
1917, Sunday February 18, Birth of the English actress Phyllis Calvert, in London.
1955, Friday February 18, The Lords rejected Anthony Wedgwood Benn's first bid to renounce his hereditary Stansgate title.
1963, Monday February 18, Death of the Labour politician Hugh Gaitskell.
1968, Monday February 18, Britain adopted a year-round daylight savings time.
1991, Monday February 18, One man was killed and 43 people injured by an IRA bomb at Victoria Station.
1993, Thursday February 18, Death of the English director/producer Leslie Norman.
1996, Sunday February 18, An IRA bomber blew himself up whilst travelling in a London bus.

19th

1377, Thursday February 19, Wyclif was arraigned before the bishop of London at St Paul's but the forceful intervention of John of Gaunt, the Duke of Lancaster, ensured that he was not condemned.
1401, Saturday February 19, The first English religious martyr, the Lollard William Chatris, a priest at St Benet Sherehog in Pancras Lane, was burned at Smithfield.
1414, Monday February 19, Death of the sixty-first Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Arundel.
1568, Thursday February 19, Death of the English bible translator Miles Coverdale.
1591, Friday February 19, Philip Henslowe's Diary notes performance by Strange's Men at the Rose.
1592, Saturday February 19, Strange's Men with Edward Alleyn begin performances at The Rose.
1594, Tuesday February 19, Birth of Henry Frederick, the future Prince of Wa les and son of James VI of Scotland.
1547, Saturday February 19, For the coronation procession of Edward VI through the City the water conduits flowed with wine and a Spaniard slid, down a rope stretched between the steeple of St Paul's and the deanery to land at the young king's feet "with his head forward, casting his arms and legs abroad, running on his breast on the rope from the battlements to the ground, as if it had been an arrow out of a bow.".
1701, Wednesday February 19, Sir Henry Furnesse Member for Sandwich was expelled from the House of Commons for acting as a Trustee for circulating Exchequer Bills contrary to an Act of Parliament.
1712, Tuesday February 19, Rt. Hon. Adam de Cardonnel Member for Southampton was expelled from the House of Commons for the reason that while Secretary to the Duke of Marlborough he received a gratuity of 500 gold ducats from Sir Solomon de Medina an army bread contractor when any new contract was sealed.
1717, Tuesday February 19, Birth of the English actor and theatre manager David Garrick.
1897, Friday February 19, Death of the French tightrope walker Charles Blondin.
1960, Friday February 19, Birth of Prince Andrew, Duke of York.
1976, Thursday February 19, Iceland broke off diplomatic relations with Britain in the 'cod war'.
1977, Saturday February 19, Death of the politician Anthony Crosland.
1990, Tuesday February 19, Death of the English documentary film-maker Michael Powell.
1993, Friday February 19, Death of the Conservative MP Judith Chaplin after a routine operation.
1994, Saturday February 19, Death of the English avant-garde film director Derek Jarman.
1997, Wednesday February 19, Michael Allcock, the UK's most senior Inland Revenue official ever convicted of corruption, went to prison for five years.

20th

1547, Sunday February 20, The Coronation Edward VI at Westminster Abbey.
1621, Tuesday February 20, Because of disturbances and riots in previous years at Shrove Tuesday the apprentices of London were not allowed on the streets at Shrovetide.
1632, Monday February 20, Birth of the Statesman Thomas Osborne Duke of Leeds and founder of the Tories.
1699, Monday February 20, Richard Woollaston Member for Whitchurch was expelled from the House of Commons for acting as Receiver of Duties on Houses and Registrar of Births Marriages and Burials contrary to an Act of Parliament.
1829, Friday February 20, A stag, chased by 60 of the king's hounds, leapt through the open door of Paddington Church but was caught and killed inside the church.
1860, Monday February 20, Death of the English banker Henry Drummond.
1863, Friday February 20, The first stretch of an underground Pneumatic Despatch Railway to carry post across London was opened. It ran from Euston to the District Sorting Office at Eversholt Street. It was eventually extended to the General Post Office St Martin le Grand but was abandoned in 1880.
1892, Friday February 20, Oscar Wilde's first London play, Lady Windermere's Fan, opened at the St James' Theatre, King Street. It was a popular, but not a critical, success.
1900, Tuesday February 20, Queen Victoria appealed for former soldiers to rejoin the army for a year as part of the home defense during the second Boer War.
1913, Thursday February 20, Suffragettes set fire to the tea pavilion at Kew Gardens.
1938, Sunday February 20, Anthony Eden resigned as foreign secretary after the prime minister Neville Chamberlain decided to negotiate with Benito Mussolini.
1947, Thursday February 20, Britain pledged to quit India by June 1948 and appointed Lord Louis Mountbatten as the last viceroy.
1986, Thursday February 20, The Channel Tunnel project was finally given the official go-ahead.
1990, Tuesday February 20, Environmentalists attacked the Government of Margaret Thatcher for proposing to spend 12.4 billion on new roads.
1995, Monday February 20, Death of the English dramatist and screenwriter Robert Bolt.

21st

1580, Sunday February 21, A Sunday performance at the Theatre prompted the indictment of Burbage and Brayne.
1595, Friday February 21, The Poet Robert Southwell was hanged at Tyburn for becoming a Jesuit priest.
1741, Saturday February 21, Death of the English agriculturalist Jethro Tull.
1801, Saturday February 21, Birth of the English cardinal and theologian John Henry Newman.
1931, Saturday February 21, The New Statesman was first published.
1966, Monday February 21, Birth of the English actress Bronwen Booth, in London.
1968, Wednesday February 21, Death of the British director Anthony Asquith.
1991, Thursday February 21, Death of the English Prima Ballerina Margot Fonteyn.
1997, Friday February 21, After almost 18 years in prison, the 'Bridgewater Three' had their convictions for the murder of the newspaper boy Carl Bridgewater quashed.

Outside London

15th

1519, Tuesday February 15, Birth of the Spanish navigator Pedro Menendez de Avil s.
1564, Tuesday February 15, Birth of the Italian astronomer Galileo Galile.
1564, Tuesday February 15, Galileo Galilei born.
1571, Thursday February 15, Birth of the German music theorist and composer Michael Praetorius.
1797, Wednesday February 15, Birth of the German piano maker Heinrich Engelhard Steinway [Steinweg].
1834, Saturday February 15, Birth of the Welsh electrical engineer and wireless pioneer William Preece, in Caernarfon.
1836, Sunday February 15, Birth of the Irish physicist who named the electron George Stoney.
1845, Saturday February 15, The Irish astronomer William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, first uses his great telescope (58 feet long with a 72" (183 cm) reflector).
1845, Saturday February 15, Birth of the American Secretary of State Elihu Root, (Nobel Peace 1912).
1857, Sunday February 15, Death of the Russian composer Mikhail Glinka.
1874, Sunday February 15, Birth of the Irish Antarctic explorer Ernest Shackelton, in Kilkee Co. Clare.
1882, Wednesday February 15, Birth of the American actor John Barrymore [Blythe].
1886, Sunday February 15, Birth of the mystery writer Sax Rohmer [Arthur Sarsfield Ward], in Birmingham.
1907, Friday February 15, Birth of the American actor Cesar Romero.
1918, Friday February 15, Birth of the American actor Alan Arbus.
1928, Thursday February 15, The Oxford English Dictionary was completed after 70 years of compilation.
1936, Saturday February 15, Hitler ordered the construction of Volkswagens.
1945, Thursday February 15, Birth of the American author Douglas Hofstadter.
1946, Friday February 15, Birth of the Labour politician Clare Short.
1947, Saturday February 15, Birth of the American actress Marisa Berenson.
1959, Friday February 15, Death of the physicist Owen Richardson, (Nobel 1928).
1965, Monday February 15, Canada replaced the Union Jack with the Maple Leaf.
1969, Saturday February 15, R G Edwards of Cambridge made the first in vitro fertilization of human egg cells.
1981, Sunday February 15, An English Football League match was played on a Sunday for the first time.
1984, Wednesday February 15, Death of the American vocalist and actress Ethel Merman.
1988, Monday February 15, Death of the physicist Richard P Feynman, (Nobel 1965).
1993, Monday February 15, Scientists announced the discovery of a massive range of volcanic vents deep under the Pacific Ocean.
1995, Wednesday February 15, A football match between the English and Irish national teams in Dublin was abandoned midway through the first half after several English fans began rioting.

16th

374, Sunday February 16, Ninth recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet.
1740, Saturday February 16, Birth of the Italian typographer Giambattistsa Bodoni.
1829, Monday February 16, Death of the Belgian/French composer Francois Gossec.
1834, Sunday February 16, Death of the English inventor of the lifeboat Lionel Lukin.
1834, Sunday February 16, Birth of the German naturalist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel.
1848, Wednesday February 16, Birth of the Dutch botanist Hugo de Vries.
1850, Saturday February 16, Birth of the French writer Octave Mirbeau.
1892, Tuesday February 16, Massenet's opera Werther premiered in Vienna.
1892, Tuesday February 16, Death of the English naturalist and explorer Henry Walter Bates.
1893, Thursday February 16, Birth of the English scholar and literary critic Ivor Armstrong Richards.
1896, Sunday February 16, Birth of the Russian pianist Alexander Brailowsky.
1901, Saturday February 16, Birth of the American actor Chester Morris.
1907, Saturday February 16, Death of the Italian poet Giosu Carducci, (Nobel 1906).
1909, Tuesday February 16, In Paris the British pilot Claude Moore-Brabazon tested his Voisin-Brabazon No.3 biplane, fitted with a 70-hp British ENV engine.
1915, Tuesday February 16, Death of the French composer Emil Waldteufel, [Charles Levy].
1922, Thursday February 16, Birth of the Welsh baritone Geraint Evans.
1935, Saturday February 16, Birth of the English actor Brian Bedford.
1937, Tuesday February 16, The DuPont Corp obtained a patent for nylon which had been invented by their employee W H Carothers.
1938, Wednesday February 16, Birth of the American actor Barry Primus.
1940, Friday February 16, The Royal Navy rescued 299 British prisoners on board the German ship Altmark in a Norwegian fjord.
1952, Saturday February 16, Death of the Norse writer Knut [Pedersen] Hamsun, (Nobel 1920).
1954, Tuesday February 16, Birth of the British science-fiction writer Iain [Menzies] Banks.
1959, Monday February 16, Birth of the American tennis player John McEnroe, (Wimbledon Singles 1981, 1983 & 1984).
1967, Thursday February 16, Death of the American actor Smiley Burnette.
1986, Sunday February 16, Death of the American actor Howard Da Silva.
1992, Thursday February 16, Death of the British novelist Angela Carter.
1992, Thursday February 16, Death of the Scottish journalist and poet George Mann MacBeth.

17th

1461, Tuesday February 17, In The Wars of the Roses, Lancastrian forces defeated the Yorkists at the Second Battle of St Albans and Henry VI was recaptured by his wife Margaret.
1600, Sunday February 17, Giordano Bruno, advocate of the Copernican theory, was burned at the stake in Rome.
1653, Thursday February 17, Birth of the Italian composer Arcangelo Corelli.
1673, Monday February 17, Moli re collapsed during perfomance of La Malade Imaginaire and dies soon after.
1723, Sunday February 17, Birth of the German geographer Tobias Mayer.
1759, Saturday February 17, An 8.3kg potato was reportedly harvested from a garden Chester.
1820, Thursday February 17, Birth of the Belgian composer Henri Vieuxtemps.
1856, Friday February 17, Death of the German poet Heinrich Heine.
1859, Monday February 17, Verdi's Un Ballo in Maschera premiered in Rome.
1867, Sunday February 17, Birth of the English chocolate manufacturer William Cadbury.
1888, Friday February 17, Birth of the German physicist Otto Stern (Nobel 1943).
1889, Sunday February 17, C sar Franck's Symphony in D, premiered in Paris.
1902, Monday February 17, Birth of the American contralto Marian Anderson.
1904, Wednesday February 17, Puccini's Madama Butterfly premiered in Milan.
1909, Wednesday February 17, Birth of the Australian soprano Marjorie Lawrence.
1910, Thursday February 17, Birth of the American actor Marc Lawrence.
1914, Tuesday February 17, Birth of the American actor Arthur Kennedy.
1916, Thursday February 17, Birth of the Italian actor Raf Vallone.
1925, Tuesday February 17, Birth of the American actor Hal Holbrook.
1934, Saturday February 17, Birth of the Australian actor Barry Humphries.
1941, Monday February 17, Birth of the British actress Julia McKenzie.
1945, Saturday February 17, Birth of the Irish actress Brenda Fricker.
1945, Saturday February 17, Birth of the actress Patricia Morrow.
1950, Friday February 17, Birth of the British actress Prunella Gee.
1962, Saturday February 17, Death of the German conductor Bruno Walter.
1972, Thursday February 17, The Volkswagon 'Beetle' became the most successful production model, selling over 15 million vehicles.
1982, Friday February 17, Death of the American actor Lee Strasburg.
1989, Friday February 17, Scientists reported that chlorofluorocarbons were cutting a hole in the ozone layer over the North Pole.
1997, Monday February 17, Scientists claimed that 65-million-year-old remains discovered in the Atlantic Ocean were evidence that a massive asteroid impact had killed off the dinosaurs.

18th

1217, Friday February 18, Death of the English encyclopaedist Alexander Neckum of Saint Albans.
1455, Tuesday February 18, Death of the Florentine painter Fra Angelico.
1493, Monday February 18, Columbus returning from America made landfall at the Azores.
1546, Thursday February 18, Death of the German founder of the Reformation Martin Luther.
1564, Friday February 18, Death of the Italian painter and sculptor Michelangelo Buonarroti.
1677, Sunday February 18, Birth of the French astronomer Jacques Cassini.
1678, Monday February 18, The first edition of John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress was published.
1745, Monday February 18, Birth of the Italian scientist Alessandro Volta.
1838, Friday February 18, Birth of the Austrian Physicist Ernst Mach.
1890, Tuesday February 18, Birth of the Russian poet/writer Boris Pasternak.
1890, Tuesday February 18, Birth of the American film actor Adolphe Menjou.
1890, Tuesday February 18, Birth of the American film actor Edward Arnold [Guenther Eduard Schneider].
1894, Sunday February 18, Birth of the Spanish classical guitarist Andr s Segovia.
1899, Saturday February 18, Birth of the English historian Arthur Bryant.
1902, Tuesday February 18, Massenet's Le Jongleur de Notre Dame premiered in Monte Carlo.
1913, Tuesday February 18, Birth of the American actor Dane Clark [Bernard Zaneville].
1915, Thursday February 18, Germany began a blockade of England.
1920, Wednesday February 18, Birth of the American film actor Jack Palance [Walter Palanuik].
1921, Friday February 18, British troops occupy Dublin.
1925, Wednesday February 18, Birth of the American film actor George Kennedy.
1929, Monday February 18, Birth of the English novelist Len Deighton.
1930, Tuesday February 18, Luigi Pirandello's Come Tu Mi Vuoi premiered in Milan.
1930, Tuesday February 18, Rodgers & Hart's Simple Simon premiered in New York.
1930, Tuesday February 18, The American astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovered the planet Pluto.
1931, Wednesday February 18, Birth of the British broadcaster and writer Ned Sherrin.
1932, Thursday February 18, Birth of the Czech director Milos Forman.
1933, Saturday February 18, Birth of the American actress Kim Novak.
1933, Saturday February 18, Birth of the English model/actress Mary Ure.
1937, Thursday February 18, An Imperial Airways flying boat arrived in Cairo after a non-stop flight of 13 hrs 30 minutess from England.
1945, Sunday February 18, Birth of the American actor Michael Nader.
1949, Friday February 18, Birth of the American actress Jess Walton.
1950, Friday February 18, Birth of the American actress Cybil Shepherd.
1954, Thursday February 18, Birth of the American film actor John Travolta.
1959, Wednesday February 18, Birth of the American film actress Greta Scacchi.
1964, Tuesday February 18, Birth of the American film actor Matt Dillon.
1967, Sunday February 18, Death of the American physicist Robert Oppenheimer.
1978, Saturday February 18, Death of the American actress Charlotte Greenwood.
1982, Thursday February 18, Death of the NZ detective writer Edith Ngaio Marsh.
1982, Thursday February 18, Death of the American actress Tina Carver.

19th

1473, Friday February 19, Birth of the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.
1473, Friday February 19, Nicolaus Copernicus born.
1653, Saturday February 19, Death of the Italian singer and composer Luigi Rossi.
1743, Saturday February 19, Birth of the Italian cellist and composer Luigi Boccherini.
1800, Monday February 19, Napoleon Bonaparte proclaimed himself First Consul of France.
1843, Sunday February 19, Birth of the Italian soprano Adelina Patti, in Madrid.
1859, Saturday February 19, Birth of the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius (Nobel 1903).
1877, Monday February 19, Birth of the French composer Louis Francois Marie Aubert.
1878, Tuesday February 19, Thomas Edison patented the phonograph..
1893, Sunday February 19, Birth of the English actor Cedric Hardwicke, at Stourbridge.
1906, Monday February 19, William Kellogg established the Battle Creek Toasted Cornflake Company, selling breakfast cereals originally developed by his brother John as a health food for psychiatric patients.
1910, Saturday February 19, Massenet's opera Don Quixote premiered in Monte Carlo.
1911, Sunday February 19, Birth of the Tasmanian film actress Merle Oberon [Estelle Merle O'Brien].
1914, Thursday February 19, Zandonai's opera Francesco da Rimini premiered in Turin.
1916, Saturday February 19, Death of the Austrian physicist Ernst Mach.
1920, Thursday February 19, Birth of the English actor George Rose, in Bicester.
1924, Tuesday February 19, Birth of the American film actor Lee Marvin.
1930, Wednesday February 19, Birth of the American film director John Frankenheimer.
1932, Friday February 19, Birth of the French opera director Jean-Pierre Ponnele.
1941, Wednesday February 19, Death of the Irish composer Hamilton Harty.
1951, Monday February 19, Death of the French novelist Andr Gide.
1952, Tuesday February 19, Death of the Norwegian writer Knut Hamsen (Nobel 1929).
1956, Sunday February 19, Death of the French composer Gustave Charpentier.
1975, Wednesday February 19, Death of the Italian composer Luigi Dallapiccola.
1982, Friday February 19, John De Lorean's luxury-car making company became bankrupt.
1986, Wednesday February 19, Death of the Sicilian actor Adolfo Celi.
1986, Wednesday February 19, Death of the American actor Paul Stewart.
1996, Monday February 19, Death of the English Actress Brenda Bruce.

20th

1437, Wednesday February 20, James I of Scotland was assassinated.
1656, Wednesday February 20, Death of the Irish biblical scholar archbishop James Ussher.
1677, Tuesday February 20, Death of the Dutch philosopher Benedict Spinoza.
1694, Tuesday February 20, Birth of the French writer and philosopher Voltaire.
1745, Wednesday February 20, Birth of the German violinist and composer Johann Peter Salomon.
1784, Friday February 20, Birth of the Scottish politician and publisher Adam Black.
1791, Sunday February 20, Birth of the Viennese pianist Carl Czerny.
1802, Saturday February 20, Birth of the Belgian violinist and composer Charles-Auguste de Beriot.
1808, Saturday February 20, Birth of the French painter Honor Daumier.
1816, Tuesday February 20, Rossini's Il Barbiere di Siviglia premiered at the Teatro Argentina in Rome.
1835, Friday February 20, Birth of the Italian philospher Allessandro d'Ancona.
1844, Tuesday February 20, Birth of the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann.
1856, Wednesday February 20, The John Rutledge, a steamer sailing from Liverpool to New York hit an iceberg and sank with the loss of many lives.
1861, Wednesday February 20, Death of the French playwright Eugene Scribe.
1872, Tuesday February 20, The hydraulic electric elevator was patented by Cyrus Baldwin.
1887, Friday February 20, Birth of the English biographer and playwright Hesketh Pearson.
1888, Monday February 20, Birth of the Polish ballerina Marie Rambert.
1892, Saturday February 20, Death of the German chemist Hermann Kopp.
1898, Sunday February 20, Birth of the Italian car manufacturer Enzo Ferrari.
1901, Wednesday February 20, Birth of the Mexican chemist Henry Eyring.
1910, Sunday February 20, Britain was struck by hurricane force winds that killed several people.
1910, Sunday February 20, Birth of the English Surrealist painter Julian Trevelyan.
1913, Thursday February 20, Death of the Scottish engineer and MP Sir William Arrol.
1916, Sunday February 20, Birth of the American actor Jackie Gleason.
1921, Sunday February 20, Birth of the American actress Amanda Blake.
1925, Friday February 20, Birth of the American film director Robert Altman.
1927, Sunday February 20, Birth of the American film actor Sidney Poitier.
1937, Saturday February 20, Birth of the German biochemist Robert Huber (Nobel 1988).
1940, Tuesday February 20, Birth of the German pianist and conductor Christoph Eschenbach.
1942, Friday February 20, Birth of the American actor Peter Strauss.
1944, Sunday February 20, Batman & Robin comic strip premiers in newspapers.
1947, Thursday February 20, Birth of the Brazilian actress Jennifer O'Neill.
1953, Friday February 20, Birth of the Italian conductor Riccardo Chailly.
1961, Monday February 20, Birth of the English actress Imogen Stubbs, in Rothbury.
1961, Monday February 20, Death of the Australian composer Percy Grainger.
1962, Tuesday February 20, John Glenn was first American to orbit Earth.
1978, Monday February 20, Southwest England suffered its worst blizzards for years.
1983, Sunday February 20, Death of the American actor Ray Vitte, shot by police.
1985, Wednesday February 20, Death of the voice of Donald Duck, Clarence Nash.
1993, Saturday February 20, Death of the Italian motor car designer Ferruccio Lamborghini.

21st

1513, Monday February 21, Death of Pope Julius II.
1554, Monday February 21, Death of the German founder of modern botany Hieronymus Bock.
1677, Wednesday February 21, Death of the philosopher Benedict Spinoza at The Hague.
1836, Sunday February 21, Birth of the French composer Leo Delibes.
1844, Wednesday February 21, Birth of the French composer Charles-Marie Widor.
1852, Saturday February 21, Death of the Russian novelist and dramatist Nikolai Gogol.
1879, Friday February 21, First US production of Gilbert and Sullivan's The Sorcerer which had premiered in London's Opera-Comique Theatre on 17 November 1877.
1880, Saturday February 21, Birth of the American actor Frank Orth.
1888, Tuesday February 21, Birth of the American actress Florence Bates.
1889, Thursday February 21, Birth of the English actor Felix Aylmer, in Corsham, Wiltshire.
1897, Sunday February 21, Birth of the Austrian actress Celia Lovsky.
1898, Monday February 21, Birth of the Russian Danseur Noble and choreographer Vassily Vainonen.
1900, Wednesday February 21, Birth of the English comic actor Sydney Arnold.
1903, Saturday February 21, Birth of the French actress Madeleine Renaud.
1907, Thursday February 21, Birth of the English poet W H Auden, in York.
1912, Wednesday February 21, Birth of the Russian pianist Nikita Magaloff.
1915, Sunday February 21, Birth of the American actress Ann Sheridan.
1922, Tuesday February 21, Egypt gained her independence from Britain.
1923, Wednesday February 21, Birth of the American actress Lucille Bremer.
1925, Saturday February 21, Birth of the American actor Al Fann.
1925, Saturday February 21, Birth of the Canadian film director Sam Peckinpah.
1926, Sunday February 21, Death of the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (Nobel 1913).
1927, Monday February 21, Birth of the French fashion designer Hubert Givenchy.
1931, Saturday February 21, Birth of the American television actor Larry Hagman.
1935, Thursday February 21, Birth of the Scottish actor Mark McManus.
1937, Sunday February 21, Birth of the American actor Gary Lockwood.
1937, Sunday February 21, Birth of the English novelist and journalist Jilly Cooper.
1940, Wednesday February 21, Birth of the English actor Peter McEnery.
1942, Saturday February 21, Birth of the German actress Margarethe Von Trotta.
1945, Wednesday February 21, Death of the Scottish runner Eric Liddell (Olympic-gold 1924).
1946, Thursday February 21, Birth of the English actor Alan Rickman.
1951, Wednesday February 21, Death of the Dutch actor Anton Roemer.
1953, Saturday February 21, Birth of the American actor William L Petersen.
1953, Saturday February 21, Watson & Crick deduce the structure of the DNA-molecule.
1981, Saturday February 21, Peter Sutcliffe, the 'Yorkshire ripper', was captured.
1984, Tuesday February 21, Death of the Russian writer Michail A Sholochov (Nobel 1965).

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