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ENGLAND
Samuel Pepys
Elizabeth I
London's Underworld
Fleet Marriages.
The Cries of London
Updated.




So poetry, which is in Oxford made An art, in London only is a trade.

-- John Dryden 1673



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Thomas Savage
Posted by Bill McCann on (30 Reads)
A Profligate Apprentice who murdered a Fellow-Servant, was executed twice, and finally buried 28th of October, 1668.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Isaac Atkinson
Posted by Bill McCann on (67 Reads)
A Highwayman who specialised in robbing Lawyers. He followed the attorneys on the circuits and in eight months accosted more than 160 in the county of Norfolk alone, and took from them upwards of three thousand pounds. He was finally undone by an old woman and her mare.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Alice Arden
Posted by Bill McCann on (94 Reads)
Between 1549 and 1551 Alice Arden plotted savagely to murder her husband so that she could continue a scandalous liaison with her former lover. With the help of Black Will and Shakebag she and her lover finally had the man murdered in his own parlour. But they failed to cover their tracks in the snow and they and a host of accomplices were promptly arrested. They implicated an innocent man in their plot and, unable to convince the court of his innocence, he was executed. One of the gang, when apprehended years later, did clear his name but, of course, it was then too late.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Mary Carleton Part 2
Posted by Bill McCann on (122 Reads)
"THE GERMAN PRINCESS," Mary Carleton, was a Kentish Adventuress who travelled the Continent, acquired several Husbands, was tried more than once for polygamy but always managed to avoid a guilty verdict. During her heyday she was a feature of London's social scene and is mentioned in Pepys' Diary. In the end, she was undone by an unlucky chance. Here is part Two of her story.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Mary Carleton Part 1
Posted by Bill McCann on (153 Reads)
"THE GERMAN PRINCESS," Mary Carleton, was a Kentish Adventuress who travelled the Continent, acquired several Husbands, was tried more than once for polygamy but always managed to avoid a guilty verdict. During her heyday she was a feature of London's social scene and is mentioned in Pepys' Diary. In the end, she was undone by a plate. Here is part one of her story.



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Law and Order in LondonThe Trial of William Penn in 1670: 5
Posted by Bill McCann on (86 Reads)
On August 14th 1670,the Quaker William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, preached to a large crowd on a London Street. The peace was disturbed and Penn, with his co-religionist William Mead, was arrested. The two men stood trial at the Old Bailey in the first days of September. They conducted their own defence and Penn recorded the trial in great detail. His record was preserved in the State Trials which were collected in 1719. In this series we will present Penn's account in its entirety. In it Penn is the "Observer" who makes frequent comments throughout and sums up the conclusion of the Trial. This trial was, in effect, the first on record to explore the limits of Free Speech a subject that is still a matter of concern in the 21st. Century. Here is the fifth and last instalment.



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Law and Order in LondonThe Trial of William Penn in 1670: 4
Posted by Bill McCann on (82 Reads)
On August 14th 1670,the Quaker William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, preached to a large crowd on a London Street. The peace was disturbed and Penn, with his co-religionist William Mead, was arrested. The two men stood trial at the Old Bailey in the first days of September. They conducted their own defence and Penn recorded the trial in great detail. His record was preserved in the State Trials which were collected in 1719. In this series we will present Penn's account in its entirety. In it Penn is the "Observer" who makes frequent comments throughout and sums up the conclusion of the Trial. This trial was, in effect, the first on record to explore the limits of Free Speech a subject that is still a matter of concern in the 21st. Century. Here is the fourth instalment.



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Law and Order in LondonThe Trial of William Penn in 1670: 3
Posted by Bill McCann on (45 Reads)
On August 14th 1670,the Quaker William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, preached to a large crowd on a London Street. The peace was disturbed and Penn, with his co-religionist William Mead, was arrested. The two men stood trial at the Old Bailey in the first days of September. They conducted their own defence and Penn recorded the trial in great detail. His record was preserved in the State Trials which were collected in 1719. In this series we will present Penn's account in its entirety. In it Penn is the "Observer" who makes frequent comments throughout and sums up the conclusion of the Trial. This trial was, in effect, the first on record to explore the limits of Free Speech a subject that is still a matter of concern in the 21st. Century. Here is the third instalment.



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Law and Order in LondonThe Trial of William Penn in 1670: 2
Posted by Bill McCann on (57 Reads)
On August 14th 1670,the Quaker William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, preached to a large crowd on a London Street. The peace was disturbed and Penn, with his co-religionist William Mead, was arrested. The two men stood trial at the Old Bailey in the first days of September. They conducted their own defence and Penn recorded the trial in great detail. His record was preserved in the State Trials which were collected in 1719. In this series we will present Penn's account in its entirety. In it Penn is the "Observer" who makes frequent comments throughout and sums up the conclusion of the Trial. This trial was, in effect, the first on record to explore the limits of Free Speech a subject that is still a matter of concern in the 21st. Century. Here is the second instalment.



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Law and Order in LondonThe Trial of William Penn in 1670: 1
Posted by Bill McCann on (77 Reads)
On August 14th 1670,the Quaker William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, preached to a large crowd on a London Street. The peace was disturbed and Penn, with his co-religionist William Mead, was arrested. The two men stood trial at the Old Bailey in the first days of September. They conducted their own defence and Penn recorded the trial in great detail. His record was preserved in the State Trials which were collected in 1719. In this series we will present Penn's account in its entirety. In it Penn is the "Observer" who makes frequent comments throughout and sums up the conclusion of the Trial. This trial was, in effect, the first on record to explore the limits of Free Speech a subject that is still a matter of concern in the 21st. Century. Here is the first instalment.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Thomas Kelsey
Posted by Bill McCann on (453 Reads)
An audacious young Thief who robbed the Tent of King William in Flanders and stabbed a Newgate Turnkey.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Witherington, Woodward and Philpot
Posted by Bill McCann on (387 Reads)
Who, early in the Reign of James I, were the first to hear the Exhortation of the Bellman of St Sepulchre's.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Thomas Wynne
Posted by Bill McCann on (449 Reads)
Wynne was a very successful burglar and thief during the reign of Elizabeth I. Following the brutal murder of a rich merchant and his wife, Wynne took ship with his wife, children and ill-gotten fortune for the colonies in Virginia. There he prospered and became very wealthy. After twenty years in Virginia, he decided that he wanted to see his native England once more before he died . . .



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Catherine Hayes
Posted by Bill McCann on (468 Reads)
Catherine Hayes who, with others, foully murdered her husband, was burned alive on 9th of May, 1726.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Lord Stourton And Four Of His Servants
Posted by Bill McCann on (494 Reads)
Executed 6th of March, 1556, for the Murder Of William Hartgill, Esq., and his Son John, of Kilmington, Somerset, after an implacable Persecution.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Captain John Sutherland
Posted by Bill McCann on (517 Reads)
CAPTAIN JOHN SUTHERLAND Commander of the British Armed Transport, The Friends. Executed at Execution dock, on the Banks of the Thames, 29th of June, 1809, for the Murder of his Cabin-Boy.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Eliza Fenning
Posted by Bill McCann on (531 Reads)
The 22-year old Eliza Fenning was indicted at the Old Bailey for that she, on the 21st day of March, 1815, feloniously and unlawfully did administer to, and cause to be administered to, Orlibar Turner, Robert Gregson Turner and Charlotte Turner, his wife, certain deadly poison - to wit, arsenic - with intent to kill and murder the said persons. The trial was held before the Recorder of London, the principal legal officer of the City.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Out of thine own mouth
Posted by Bill McCann on (422 Reads)
At the Old Bailey Session on September 9th 1674, a person unnamed was indicted for highway robbery. He conducted his own defence and got just a little carried away . . .



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Jack Sheppard the Great Escaper
Posted by Bill McCann on (785 Reads)
A Daring Housebreaker, who made Ingenious Escapes from Prison and even tried to foil his Executioner at Tyburn on 16th of November, 1724



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: John Wilkes, Rabble-rouser
Posted by Bill McCann on (2838 Reads)
John Wilkes was one of the great and flamboyant figures in London's history. He was an Alderman, Lord Mayor, Member of Parliament and a member of the Hell-Fire Club who enjoyed wide popular support. He opposed Bute's Administration, was convicted of seditious libel and expelled from the House of Commons - twice. He also secured the right of newspapers to publish parliamentary debates. Because of his conviction, he has secured a place in the Newgate Calendar and the article there is given here. It provides a useful, if biased, introduction to the other articles about this extraordinary character which will follow in due course.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Riley and Nutts
Posted by Bill McCann on (1923 Reads)
James Riley And Robert Nutts were executed before Newgate, 24th of June, 1801, for Highway Robbery. They were convicted in the previous January but owing to the indisposition of the king who could not sign the death warrants, they were "reserved" until June. They were hanged on what was a very busy day at Newgate.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Clench and Mackley
Posted by Bill McCann on (1208 Reads)
Believed to be innocent of a Charge of Murder, they were executed before Newgate, 5th of June, 1797. The Gallows collapsed before the blindfolds were in place and the clergymen, executioner and his assistant went down with the hanged men.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Francois Benjamin Courvoisier
Posted by Bill McCann on (1886 Reads)
This twenty-three year old Swiss valet was executed in July 1840, for murdering his employer Lord William Russell whilst he slept in his house in Norfolk Street, Park Lane. The trial was packed by the cream of London society and was a triumph for the detection skills of the newly formed police force. The execution was attended by two famous Victorian novelists but the case had an unfortunate affect on the subsequent reputation of a third.



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Law and Order in LondonJonathan Wild, Thief-taker: Part 1
Posted by Bill McCann on (1293 Reads)
Jonathan Wild was a notorious London Thief-Taker in the early part of the eighteenth century. He styled himself "Thief-taker-General of Great Britain and Ireland" and ran a vast corporation of criminals. He began operations in 1712 when he as about thirty years of age. Here we describe his early operations and the establishment of his empire.



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Law and Order in LondonJonathan Wild, Thief-taker: Part 2
Posted by Bill McCann on (881 Reads)
Jonathan Wild was a notorious London Thief-Taker in the early part of the eighteenth century. He styled himself "Thief-taker-General of Great Britain and Ireland" and ran a vast corporation of criminals. The partnership with Hitchin was very successful until the latter's disgrace for a crime "too detestable to mention". Wild's empire and influence grew apace and he he ruled the London underworld managing to side-step the new laws enacted against receivers. As thief-taker he sent more than 100 people to the gallows. However, the gallows beckoned for him also and his luck began to tun out in 1725.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Hawkins and Simpson
Posted by Bill McCann on (585 Reads)
John Hawkins and James Simpson were eighteenth century highwaymen who turned mail robbers. They lodged in Green Arbor Court, opposite the Old Bailey and were finally committed to the latter on the evidence of a young man whom Hawkins had seduced into a life of crime. They were executed at Tyburn and their bodies gibbeted on Hounslow Heath in 1722.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Jack Ketch: Hangman
Posted by Bill McCann on (1216 Reads)
A Rogue and liar, who was not believed when he spoke the Truth. After a career as a thief and footpad and having suffered the lash and keel-hauling in the merchant navy he held the Office of Common Hangman at Tyburn. He was himself hanged in Bunhill Fields in May, 1718, for murdering a Woman in that place.



Note: The complete text of the Newgate Calendar is available online here.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: John Larkin
Posted by Bill McCann on (435 Reads)
A successful schoolmaster but quite unable to manage his accounts and live within his means. He turned to forgery to supply his deficits and aimed high. He soon became an expert in forging the signatures of bishops and members of the aristocracy. He was imprisoned for debt, became involved with a group of coiners and Newgate and was sentenced to death. Probably innocent of the charge of coining, he committed so many successful forgeries and frauds that he had not time to confess them all before he was executed at Tyburn in 1700.



Note: The complete text of the Newgate Calendar is available online here.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: The Countess of Bristol
Posted by Bill McCann on (500 Reads)
The Countess of Bristol otherwise The Duchess of Kingston was at the centre of one of the great scandals of the late eighteenth century. She was tried for bigamy at Westminster Hall and such was the notoreity of the case that the trial was attended by the Queen and other Members of the Royal Family. She died in France of an apoplexy brought about by the actions of the Revolutionary Authorities. Hers is an extraordinary story and reads like the plot from a novel by Anthony Trollope.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Henry Harrison, Gentleman
Posted by Bill McCann on (446 Reads)
Dr Andrew Clenche was roused late one evening and asked by two men to attend someone who was not well. After a coach ride through the City the coachman was sent twice on a fool's errand. When he returned the second time he found Dr Clenche strangled in the back of the coach.



Note: The complete text of the Newgate Calendar is available online here.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Jack Withrington
Posted by Bill McCann on (356 Reads)
One of five brothers, all of whom were hanged. He earned fame for his courage, challenged the Captain of his Regiment, turned gamester, thief and highwayman and was executed on the 1st of April, 1691.



Note: 1. "Mill the Dolly": Prisoners in the Bridewell spent their time "bunching" hemp, that is preparing it for rope-making. The "dolly" was the implement used for separating the fibres of the plant stems.

2. The complete text of the Newgate Calendar is available online here.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Ogden and Reynolds
Posted by Bill McCann on (393 Reads)
Will Ogden and Tom Reynolds were Housebreakers and Highwaymen who were executed at Kingston-upon-Thames in April, 1714. Ogden remained sanguine to the end and his very last act in life gave the spectators some amusement!



Note: The complete text of the Newgate Calendar is available online here

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Law and Order in LondonThe Adventures of Old Mobb: Part Two
Posted by Bill McCann on (328 Reads)
Finding the officers of the law getting a bit too close on the highways Old Mobb turned himself to a different career. He went into partnership with a fellow Knight of the roads, and together they proceeded to defraud the London merchants of a large sum of money in an elaborate scam. They were finally undone after a clever piece of fraud practised on a pair of rich brothers. Old Mobb was executed at Tyburn on May 30th 1690.



Note: 1. Chapmen were pedlars or tradesmen. The word is derived from the Old English word, chepe, for market or bargain. The modern word Chap is derived from phrases such as "If you want to buy, I'm your chap(man)".

2. The complete text of the Newgate Calendar is available online here.

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Law and Order in LondonThe Adventures of Old Mobb: Part one
Posted by Bill McCann on (403 Reads)
An erudite Highwayman with a taste for stinging repartee, Old Mob flourishd on the highway between London and the West Country in the late 17th century. The victims, of both his tongue and pistol, included the famous Mountebank, Cornelius a Tilburgh, the Duchess of Portsmouth, mistress of Charles II and the infamous jusge of the "Bloody Assizes", George Jeffreys.



Note: The complete text of the Newgate Calendar is available online here.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Daniel Blake
Posted by Anthony Waldstock on (453 Reads)
A butcher from Norfolk who came to London to better himself. He was executed on the 28th of February, 1763 for the murder of John Murcott, Butler to Lord Dacre.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime And Punishment: Gahagan and Conner
Posted by Bill McCann on (365 Reads)
Usher Gahagan and Terence Conner were erudite Men, who were executed for High Treason, in diminishing the Current Coin of the Realm, one the 28th of February, 1749.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Mul-Sack
Posted by Anthony Waldstock on (378 Reads)
John Cottington alias Mul-Sack, was a Chimney-Sweep, Pickpocket and Highwayman, who brought off some big coups before he was executed at Smithfield in April, 1685.



Note: 1. Fleet Marriages: These were notorious clandestine marriages which were performed without a licence by indigenous clergymen. They were first performed in the chapel of the Fleet Prison by clergymen imprisoned there for debt. From the beginning of the 18th century they were also performed in the inns and taverns around the Fleet. They were declared void by the Marriage Act of 1753.

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Law and Order in LondonThe Art and Practice of Forgery
Posted by Bill McCann on (555 Reads)
In 1896 T Camden Pratt published his Unknown London which he described as "A contribution to the history of London; and a guide to places generally unknown". It is an entertaining collection of essays on diverse subjects and London types. One day he met a forger.....



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Major George Strangwayes
Posted by Bill McCann on (375 Reads)
The subject of a macabre execution on the 28th of February, 1658, for the murder of the man who married his sister. He was pressed to death in Newgate but was denied the usual sharp stake under his back to bring about a speedy death. It was found that the weights available were not enough crush him so his friends, who were in attendance, added their combined weight to the press.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Captain Blood
Posted by Bill McCann on (477 Reads)
Thomas Blood, generally called Colonel Blood, stole the Crown from the Tower of London on 9th of May, 1671 and afterwards ingratiated himself with Charles II who personally came to question him at the Tower.





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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: William Burk
Posted by Bill McCann on (331 Reads)
William Burk After an adventurous Seafaring Life as a Boy he became a Robber, and was executed at Tyburn on the 8th of April, 1723.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Dennis Collins
Posted by Bill McCann on (367 Reads)
Convicted of High Treason, in throwing a Stone at King William IV. at Ascot Races, 19th of June, 1832. His sentence was eventually commuted to transportation for life, and he was sent from this country to Van Diemen's Land.


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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Herman Strodtman
Posted by Bill McCann on (289 Reads)
Executed at Tyburn, 18th of June, 1701, for the Murder of Peter Wolter, his Fellow-Apprentice. It was remarked that he kept his hand lifted up for a considerable time after the cart was drawn away.


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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: The Newgate Bellman
Posted by Bill McCann on (464 Reads)
The church of St Sepulchre, situated close to Newgate, was on the condemned route from that prison to Tyburn. At an early date, the custom of tolling the bell as if for a funeral as the condemned prisoners were passing was established. However, a second custom carried out on the night before the journey to Tyburn, soon established itself.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: John Bellingham
Posted by Bill McCann on (298 Reads)
John Bellingham, executed for the assassination of the Right Honourable Spencer Perceval, the Prime Minister, by shooting him in the lobby of the the House of Commons, in May, 1812. Spencer Perceval remains the only British Prime Minister to have been assassinated.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Jack Addison
Posted by Bill McCann on (346 Reads)
Jack Addison served in both the land and naval services and was a butdher by trade. Becoming involved with a woman of ill repute he "went on the footpad for the maintenance of her." He committed fifty-six Highway Robberies before being apprehended and tried. He was executed at Tyburn in March, 1711.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Sir Thomas Picton
Posted by Bill McCann on (355 Reads)
A former Governor of Trinidad who was convicted of applying Torture in order to extort Confession from a Girl. He was allowed to Appeal and the subsequent retrial acquitted him. He went on to enjoy a distinguished military career and died leading a charge at the battle of Waterloo.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Stephen Gardener
Posted by Bill McCann on (313 Reads)
Executed at Tyburn, 3rd of February, 1724, for House-breaking, after being warned that the Bellman of St Sepulchre would say his Verses over him. before he quitted Newgate on the day of execution he dressed himself in a shroud, in which he was executed, refusing to wear any other clothes, though the weather was intensely cold.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Henry Jones, Francis Phoenix & Charles Burton
Posted by Bill McCann on (307 Reads)
Three experienced thieves who were found guilty of a daring robbery, committed by breaking into the house of Sir Robert Ladbroke, an alderman and banker, in the City of London. They were executed at Tyburn on the 3rd of February, 1772.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Matthew Henderson
Posted by Bill McCann on (291 Reads)
Matthew Hendereson was born at North Berwick, in Scotland, where he was educated in the liberal manner customary in that country. He was executed in Oxford Street on the 25th of February, 1746, for murdering his Mistress, Lady Dalrymple, who was angry because he trod on her Toe.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Joseph Moses
Posted by Bill McCann on (305 Reads)
In 1811, Joseph Moses was convicted by a jury of receiving the Skins of Royal Swans from the Serpentine River, in Hyde Park, knowing them to have been stolen. He was fined and imprisoned.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Wych, Andrews and Williams
Posted by Bill McCann on (311 Reads)
George Wych, Thomas Andrews alias Anderton and William Williams, were all three convicted for a series of robberies on the highway after a short trial at the Old Bailey on February 25th 1731. They were hanged in early March.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: John Chapel
Posted by Bill McCann on (327 Reads)
He pleaded guilty to murdering one Mary Martin who was found dead in a field near Hoxton; with a piece of Knife sticking in her head, and a Knife under her left Ear. He was found guilty at Newgate on February 25th 1731 and ordered to be hanged in chains.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Edward Bird
Posted by Bill McCann on (334 Reads)
A lieutenant in a regiment of horse, before he had been long in the army he began to associate with abandoned company of both sexes, which finally led to the commission of the crime which cost him his life. He took a Pinch of Snuff just before his Execution at Tyburn, on 23rd of February, 1719, for murdering a Waiter at a house of ill fame in Silver street.



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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Margaret Grimes Alias Barrington
Posted by Bill McCann on (373 Reads)
Executed before Newgate, 22nd of February, 1809, for taking a False Oath, and thereby obtaining Letters of Administration to the Effects of a Soldier. She unsuccessfully tried to escape the hangman by claiming that she was quick with child.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: James Donally
Posted by Bill McCann on (311 Reads)
A Blackmailer, who took advantage of a vulnerable young man on the streets of London and was convicted of a new species of Highway Robbery, 22nd of February, 1779.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Captain Richard Dudley
Posted by Bill McCann on (332 Reads)
A Companion of the Highway Man whom King Charles II dubbed Swiftnicks for his Ride to York. Executed 22nd of February, 1681.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: John Holloway & Owen Haggerty
Posted by Bill McCann on (766 Reads)
A Hundred Spectators were killed or injured in a Crush at the Execution of these Men before Newgate on the 22nd of February, 1807.

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Law and Order in LondonCrime and Punishment: Introduction to the Series
Posted by Bill McCann on (3546 Reads)
London's streets have always been crime-ridden. This series presents the tales of some of the individuals convicted of crimes, small and great, at the Middlesex and London assizes, Star Chamber, Court of Aldermen, etc. and their subsequent fate. Tyburn and Newgate are words that are resonant with the extremes of punishment in the 18th and 19th centuries and, naturally, both loom large in the series. However, there will also be articles on some of the more famous crimes in London's more recent history.

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Law and Order in LondonThe Execution of Margaret Countess of Salisbury
Posted by Bill McCann on (878 Reads)
Everyone has heard the horror stories of botched executions with victims running screaming around the scaffold etc. The story of Margaret, Countess of Salisbury, is one of the authentic examples of such horror. Her only crime was that she was the mother of a Cardinal who stood up to Henry VIII.Her screaming ghost is still said to haunt the tower on the anniversary of her death.

Note: Related Reading:
Henry VIII : The King and His Court
Edward IV (Yale English Monarchs Series)
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Law and Order in LondonThe Execution of Captain Kidd
Posted by Bill McCann on (8238 Reads)
Captain Kidd is the archetypal swashbuckling pirate of all time - or is he? He himself strenuously denied it before his execution, which he attended in a state of inebriation! Did he get a fair trial or was he one of the many victims of a justice system which is still on the rack today? And just where did the legends of fabulous buried wealth - which have intoxicated treasure hunters for almost three centuries - spring from?


Note: Various aspects of the history and legends associated with William Kidd can be explored online at the following sites:

William Kidd
Kidd
history

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