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ENGLAND
Samuel Pepys
Elizabeth I
London's Underworld
Fleet Marriages.
The Cries of London
Updated.




London is the common country of all England, from which is derived to all parts of this realm all good and all ill occurrent here.

-- Thomas Bedyll, Archdeacon of London, 1537



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June Week 4
Posted on Jun 10, 2002 - 05:24 AM by Bill McCann

This page provides daily updates on past events and anniversaries during the Final week of June. The events included are those that either happened in London or had an effect, one way or another, on the lives of Londoners.


Daily updates on Events during the Final week


Below are the events and anniversaries for this week both about London and Londoners and Outside London.

The archive for these pages has been arranged in a series of monthly Digests. To speed up navigation, these have been further divided into four weekly instalments. These pages are all comprehensively interlinked.

Each Section has its own background page which provides additional and in-depth information about many of the events and people in the daily listings. They are intended to both amuse and inform and can be found at Gazette Briefings and Historical Anecdotes .

Links to the anniversaries and events in the other weeks of the month are given in the following table whilst links to the other months of the year can be found at the bottom of the page.

First WeekSecond WeekThird Week

London and Londoners

22nd
1377, Monday Following the death of his Grandfather Edward III, Richard II became succeeded to the throne.
1483, Sunday A Political Sermon at St Paul's Cross, attended by Gloucester, set out the claim that Edward V was illegitimate.
1527, Saturday Death of Jane Shore, mistress of Edward IV.
1535, Tuesday St John Fisher the bishop of Rochester was executed on Tower Hill for refusing the Oath of Supremacy.
1559, Thursday Queen Elizabeth's Prayer Book for use in all churches in England was issued.
1616, Saturday Mr Chamberlain muses on the respective fates of Francis Bacon and Edward Coke.
1660, Friday Mr Pepys hears how old Lady Middlesex disgraced herself in the presence of the King and goes home to sleep in his own bed for the first time since returning to London.
1663, Monday Mr Evelyn inspects a collection of rarities sent to London by the Jesuits in Japan and China.
1664, Wednesday Death of the English poetess, Londoner Katherine Philips.
1699, Thursday Death of the English merchant, Londoner Josiah Child.
1716, Friday In the House of Commons, John Carnegie, Member for Forfarshire, was expelled for his participation in the 1715 Jacobite rebellion.
1731, Tuesday The Gentleman's Magazine reported that a certain Doctor of Trinity Hall Cambridge, has been lately detected and confessed the stealing several books from the Library of St John's College.
1752, Thursday Thomas Wilford, a Cripple who murdered his wife in a fit of jealousy, was executed at Tyburn.
1851, Sunday Death of the English inventor Thomas Edmondson.
1887, Wednesday Birth of the English Biologist, Londoner Sir Julian Huxley.
1900, Friday The Wallace Collection of art, in Hertford House, Manchester Square, opened to the public.
1907, Saturday The Northern Line on the Underground was opened.
1911, Thursday First performance of Elgars Coronation March at coronation of of King George V and Queen Mary.
1953, Monday John Christie's trial for the Rillington Place murders opened at the Old Bailey as he pleaded insanity.
1956, Friday Death of the English poet and author, Londoner Walter de la Mare.
1967, Thursday Home Secretary Roy Jenkins announced that Britain was to permanently adopt European time. The scheme was never implemented.
1974, Saturday The Times moved from Blackfriars, where it had published for 189 years, to new offices in Gray's Inn Road.
1983, Wednesday Death of the English engineer Sir Christopher Hinton.
1995, Thursday Famously telling his critics to 'put up or shut up', John Major resigned as leader of the Conservative Party, remained prime minister while he fought for re-election.
1998, Monday The House of Commons votes by a majority of 207 to cut the age of consent for gay sex from 18 to 16.

23rd

1586, Thursday The Star Chamber limited the number of printing presses and licensed printers and assigned the licensing of books to the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London.
1613, Wednesday Mr Chamberlain is sarcastic about the lately deceased William Gent.
1613, Wednesday Mr Chamberlain gossips about the impending divorce of the Earl of Essex and lady Frances Howard.
1621, Saturday Mr Chamberlain reports that the disgraced Lord Chancellor, Francis Bacon, has gone to his own house at Gorhambury.
1660, Saturday Mr Pepys waits in the rain with the people who are to be touched for the King's Evil and later changes his Dutch money for English at Backwell's.
1665, Friday Mr Evelyn hears how the Duke of York's dog behaves himself in battle.
1697, Wednesday Death of the English antiquary John Aubrey.
1802, Wednesday Henry ***** was executed before Newgate for a forgery in which he swindled his Benefactor's Estate.
1837, Friday In the House of Commons, a vote on a Motion to give a third reading to the Caoutchouc Company Bill now, and not in six months was tied on 41 votes. The Speaker, James Abercromby, voted with the Ayes.
1839, Sunday Death of the English traveller, Londoner Hester Lucy Stanhope.
1858, Wednesday Birth of the English mathematician William Johnson.
1860, Saturday Birth of the English biologist and anthropologist Sir (Walter) Baldwin Spencer.
1894, Saturday Birth of Edward VIII (Duke of Windsor).
1895, Sunday Death of the English pioneer palaeobotanist William Crawford Williamson.
1897, Wednesday Largest news illustration ever printed by any daily paper in this country was of the Diamond Jubilee procession in the Daily Mail.
1909, Wednesday The Darwin Museum, at his house in Downe, opened to commemorate 100th anniversary of his birth.
1910, Thursday The King's eldest son, David, later Edward VIII was created Prince of Wales on his 16th birthday.
1911, Friday George V was crowned at Westminster Abbey.
1912, Sunday Birth of the English mathematician, Londoner Alan Turing.
1915, Wednesday Birth of the English actor, Londoner John Prebble.
1922, Friday In London, Police arrested 20 men in connection with Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson's murder.
1924, Monday Death of the English folk song archivist, Londoner Cecil Sharp.
1927, Thursday Birth of the Bishop of London and archbishop of York John Habgood.
1930, Sunday The Simon Commission recommended a federal India and the separation of Burma.
1935, Saturday George Orwell's Burmese Days was published.
1937, Wednesday At a meeting in London Germany and Italy withdraw from the four-power patrols in Spain.
1940, Saturday In London, General de Gaulle announced the formation of a French National Committee.
1948, Wednesday Birth of the English composer Nigel Osborne.
1950, Friday Birth of the British conductor Nicholas Cleobury.
1951, Saturday It was announced that the 'missing diplomats' Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean, were Soviet spies and had fled to the USSR.
1971, Wednesday The Government announced that British motorways would be extended by 1,000 miles by the 1980s.
1986, Monday Death of the English actor Nigel Stock.
1989, Friday The Home secretary announced that the West Midlands Serious Crime Squad had been disbanded in the wake of allegations of malpractice.
1994, Thursday It was announced that the Royal Yacht Britannia would be sold or scrapped.
1995, Friday The Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd announced his resignation from politics.

24th

1277, Thursday Edward I began his first Welsh campaign following Llewelyn's refusal to do homage.
1509, Sunday Katherine of Aragon was crowned Queen.
1532, Monday Birth of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester.
1559, Saturday The Elizabethan Prayer Book was first used.
1660, Sunday Mr Pepys buys a pair of gloves with his morning draught and goes to bed with his dead full of thoughts of his appointment as Clerk of the Acts.
1693, Saturday Birth of the Flemish sculptor, Londoner Michael Rysbrack.
1709, Friday The foundation stone of Marlborough House in Pall Mall was laid.
1709, Friday Dick Hughes, a Robber whose thoughtful wife bought the Rope to hang him, was executed at Tyburn.
1715, Friday Death of the English astrologer, Londoner John Partridge.
1731, Thursday Samuel Russell, and Thomas Pindar, Esqs were elected sheriffs of this City; and Mr Smith and Mr Bosworth, auditors.
1731, Thursday The Gentleman's Magazine reported that the Prince George, a Ship belonging to the English Gentlemen in Bengal, was lost in October last in Funcun Bay, 45 Leagues to the Westward of canton, with the loss of 58 lives. The survivors were each given gifts of money by the emperor of China.
1731, Thursday The Gentleman's Magazine reported that letters from all parts of the West Indies mention a great Drought, and particularly at Antigua where exorbitant prices were being charged for water.
1778, Wednesday Thomas Horner and James Fryer were executed at Tyburn for Burglary and Robbery under Threats of Violence.
1778, Wednesday Francis Lewis Otherwise Grimson, a butler whose bogus burglary was discovered with the aid of a cobweb, was executed at Tyburn.
1811, Monday Richard Armitage And C. Thomas, Clerks in the Bank of England, were executed before Newgate for Forgery.
1878, Monday The St John Ambulance Association was formed.
1891, Wednesday James Riley and Robert Nutts were executed before Newgate for Highway Robbery.
1902, Tuesday Edward VII was operated on for the appendicitis which had delayed his coronation.
1907, Monday George, the Prince of Wales was made first president of the All England Club on the opening day of the Wimbledon tennis meeting.
1909, Thursday Birth of the British physicist, Londoner William Penney.
1912, Monday Death of Field-Marshal Sir George White, former Governor of Gibraltar.
1926, Thursday Papers seized during raids on the Communist party headquarters in London the previous year were published. They included USSR suggestions for fomenting strike chaos.
1927, Friday The University of London bought a large site in Bloomsbury for 525,000.
1929, Monday The U.S. Embassy in London finally went dry. Alcohol had continued to be served there since Prohibition came into force in 1920.
1934, Sunday Ramsay MacDonald's Government declared a 16% decrease in arms expenditure over the previous eight years. Britain was the only major power to experience such a drop.
1938, Friday The RAF launched a new recruitment campaign and received 1,000 enquiries on the first day.
1952, Tuesday In the House of Commons the Ayes and the Nays tied at 173 on a Motion for leave to bring in the Licensing at Airports Bill. The Speaker, William Shepherd Morrison, cast his vote with the Ayes.
1968, Monday One thousand trains were cancelled as the National Union of Railwaymen began a work-to-rule.
1971, Thursday The opposition Labour party called for a special conference to discuss entry to the European Economic Community (EEC).
1976, Thursday In London, an anonymous U.S. citizen gave Britain $1.2 million to buy site of Battle of Hastings.
1986, Tuesday Death of the English novelist Rex Warner.
1992, Wednesday Lloyd's Insurance announced a loss of 2.06 billion the worst in its 300-year history.

25th
1483, Wednesday Execution of the English politician Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers on the orders of the Gloucester, Lord Protector.
1503, Sunday Katherine of Aragon and Prince Henry were betrothed.
1612, Thursday Mr Chamberlain discusses the continued vilification of the recently deceased Robert Cecil.
1625, Saturday Mr Chamberlain charts the progress of the latest outbreak of the plague and the arrival of the new Queen in London.
1634, Wednesday Death of the English playwright John Marston at his house in Aldermanbury.
1660, Monday Mr Pepys goes to the Admiralty and makes acquaintance with the General Clerk at the Navy Office.
1736, Friday Birth of the English politician, Londoner John Horne Tooke.
1756, Friday The first meeting of the Marine Society was held at the Kings Arms tavern in Cornhill.
1834, Wednesday In the House of Commons, the Ayes and the Nays tied at 35 on an Amendment to the Highways Bill. The Speaker, Charles M Sutton, cast his vote with the Ayes and the Amendment was carried.
1879, Wednesday Birth of the English inventor, Londoner Sir William Fothergill Cooke.
1901, Tuesday The London County Council adopted the new tramways scheme presented by the Highways Committee.
1912, Tuesday The Prime Minister, Herbert Asquith was bitterly attacked in Commons for the "torture" of force-feeding suffragettes in prison.
1912, Tuesday Death of the English painter Laurence Alma-Tadema.
1927, Saturday King Alfonso of Spain arrived on a State visit.
1934, Monday The Government put a 20% duty on German goods in retaliation for Germany's debt moratorium.
1939, Sunday Police raids follow IRA bomb blasts in the West End which left 19 people injured.
1941, Wednesday Birth of the English Actor, Londoner Roy Marsden.
1981, Thursday The BBC announced cutbacks to its foreign language radio services.
1993, Friday The President of the new European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Frenchman Jacques Attali resigned after allegations of profligacy.
1994, Saturday The Times reported the discovery of a previously unknown species of mammal, the Vu Quang ox, in Vietnam.

26th
1483, Thursday Richard, Duke of Gloucester meets the City Authorities at Baynard's Castle who invite him to take the throne.
1660, Tuesday A merchant offers Mr Pepys 500 if he would decline the position of Clerk of the Acts.
1688, Tuesday Death of the English philosopher, Londoner Ralph Cudworth.
1702, Friday Birth of the English Nonconformist, Londoner Philip Doddridge.
1815, Monday Eliza Fenning, a cook who had been convicted of placing Arsenic in Dumplings, was executed after making solemn protestations of her innocence.
1819, Saturday Dr Johnson's House at 8 Bolt Court was entirely consumed by a fire.
1849, Tuesday The British Navigation Acts which imposed duties on goods carried by non-British ships were finally repealed.
1866, Tuesday Birth of the English Egyptologist the 5th Earl of Carnarvon.
1913, Thursday Miss Emily Duncan, of West Ham, was appointed Britain's first woman magistrate.
1922, Monday George V opened the Wimbledon tournament at its new site in Queen's Road.
1923, Tuesday The Government announced that it would increase the U.K.'s home air defences from 18 squadrons to 52.
1927, Sunday Communists and Fascists clashed in Hyde Park.
1931, Friday Birth of the British writer Colin Wilson.
1933, Monday George V laid the foundation stone of the University of London's new Bloomsbury site.
1937, Saturday The Duke of Windsor married Mrs Wallis Simpson in France.
1939, Monday Death of the English novelist and poet, Londoner Ford Madox Ford [Ford Hermann Hueffer].
1951, Tuesday Death of the Scottish mathematician George Udny Yule.
1960, Sunday British Somaliland was granted formal independence. [It joined Somalia on the following day.].
1965, Saturday The Commonwealth Prime Ministers, at their London Conference, agreed to send a peace mission to South Vietnam.
1973, Tuesday Death of the British dancer and choreographer, Londoner John Cranko.
1974, Wednesday The Labour government and the Trades Union Congress finalised the Social Contract to restrain pay increases.
1976, Saturday London had its highest ever recorded temperature of 35 degrees centigrade.
1991, Wednesday The Court of Appeal overturned the conviction of the Maguire family who had spent 16 years in jail for the alleged terrorist offences.
1995, Monday The Welsh Secretary John Redwood resigned from the cabinet to stand against John Major in the Conservative Party leadership contest.

27th
1483, Friday Richard of Gloucester "accepted" the invitation of the City Authorities and goes to Westminster to take the throne. The Young Prince of Wales and his brother the Duke of York are not seen again.
1602, Sunday Mr Chamberlain reports on the efforts of the Council to check the increase in house building in and around London.
1602, Sunday Mr Chamberlain reports on the measures taken to protect the treasure of a captured Spanish ship from the "pilfering town" of Plymouth.
1660, Wednesday Mr Pepys dines at the Swan in Dowgate which does not impress him but has "very good fish and plenty". He later likes the sound of his voice in the dark and an empty room.
1742, Sunday Death of the English lexicographer, Londoner Nathaniel Bailey.
1752, Saturday Moses Moravia And John Manoury were convicted at the Old Bailey of sinking a Ship and swindling Insurers.
1777, Friday Dr William Dodd Doctor of Divinity, Prebendary of Brecon, Chaplain-in- Ordinary to his Majesty, and Minister to the Magdalen Hospital was Executed at Tyburn for Forgery.
1806, Friday Birth of the English mathematician, Londoner Augustus De Morgan.
1829, Saturday Death of the English scientist James Smithson.
1861, Thursday Birth of English pianist Fanny Davis, she was the first person to give a piano recital in Westminster Abbey.
1883, Wednesday Death of the English mathematician, Londoner William Spottiswoode.
1887, Sunday Premiere of Sir Charles Villers Stanford's Irish Symphony at a Richter concert in London.
1900, Wednesday The first stage of the Central Railway "Tuppenny Tube" from Shepherd's Bush to Bank began operating.
1908, Saturday Lord Northcliffe bought the Times newspapers from the Walter family.
1913, Friday A Demonstration by the Free Speech Defence Committee, lead by Sylvia Pankhurst, marched on Downing Street and had violent encounters with the police.
1916, Tuesday George V announced that the Military Medal will be awarded to women.
1919, Friday The Labour party Conference voted in favour of going on strike for political purposes.
1935, Thursday The British Peace Ballot results were published and showed that public opinion supported the League of Nations and arms reductions.
1939, Tuesday The whole of New Zealand Avenue in the City was destroyed by fire.
1946, Thursday Post-War bread rationing began in the UK.
1957, Thursday Death of the British novelist Malcolm Lowry.
1960, Monday Birth of English conductor and harpsichordist Robert King.
1961, Tuesday Dr Arthur Michael Ramsey became the 100th Archbishop of Canterbury.
1967, Tuesday Barclays Bank opened Britain's first cash dispenser in Enfield.
1975, Friday Death of the English physicist, Londoner Geoffrey Taylor.
1975, Friday The International Whaling Commission, meeting in London, banned the hunting of finback whale.
1983, Monday A second inquest into the death of Italian banker Roberto Calvi returned an open verdict.
1984, Wednesday Pinewood Studios were destroyed by a fire.
1994, Monday The Lord Chief Justice, Lord Taylor, called for an end to mandatory life sentences for murder.

28th
1461, Sunday Coronation of Edward IV.
1491, Tuesday Birth of Henry VIII.
1599, Thursday Mr Chamberlain reports on a duel and an ambush.
1620, Wednesday Mr Chamberlain acidly describes Henry Wotton's departure as Ambassador to the Court of Ferdinand II.
1623, Saturday Mr Chamberlain reports on the re-instatement of the monopoly in making gold thread.
1645, Saturday In the Civil War, the Royalists lost Carlisle.
1660, Thursday Mr Pepys chooses a pattern for a new suit and dines at Clothworkers Hall where he found good company, and very good music.
1665, Wednesday Mr Evelyn goes to a meeting of the Royal Society where proceedings are prorogued early because of the Plague.
1768, Tuesday Death of the English meteorologist George Hadley.
1834, Saturday Coronation of Queen Victoria at Westminster Abbey.
1855, Thursday Death of the English soldier, Londoner Lord Raglan.
1900, Thursday A new weekly river and sea service to Paris, taking 72 hours, was opened.
1909, Monday Birth of the English novelist and playwright, Londoner Eric Ambler.
1912, Friday Suffragettes start their window-smashing campaign at post offices and labour exchanges.
1916, Wednesday It was reported that the U.K. and France have abandoned the London Declaration of 1914 not to make separate peace with Germany.
1918, Friday Birth of the English politician William Whitelaw.
1920, Monday Tameo Kajiyama demonstrated the art of mind concentration at the Coliseum when he read, wrote, talked, and listened simultaneously.
1921, Tuesday The coal strike was finally settled after three months.
1928, Thursday Death of the English Naval architect Sir John Isaac Thornycroft.
1928, Thursday Birth of the English politician Cyril Smith.
1929, Friday Birth of the English newspaper editor, Londoner Harold Evans.
1930, Saturday One thousand Communists were routed in an assault on the British Council.
1930, Saturday The jet engine was patented by Frank Whittle.
1935, Friday The cartoon character Rupert Bear appeared for the first time in the Daily Express.
1956, Thursday Sydney Silverman's bill for the abolition of the death penalty was passed by the House of Commons.
1958, Saturday Death of the English poet Alfred Noyes.
1962, Thursday The Pilkington Committee produced the first government report on the state of British broadcasting.
1968, Friday A formation fly-past by six Avro Ansons at RAF Bovingdon in Hertfordshire marks the type's withdrawal from service after a record 32-year career.
1982, Monday It was announced that the son of the prince of wales would be named William Arthur Philip Louis.
1984, Thursday The magazine Titbits closed after 104 years.
1984, Thursday The government was defeated in the Lords over plans to scrap the Greater London Council.
1989, Wednesday A second national one-day rail strike coincided with a virtual shutdown of the London underground.
1990, Thursday Home Office figures indicated that recorded crime rose by 15% in England and Wales during the first three months of the year.
1993, Monday Buckingham Palace announced that the Duke and Duchess of York had reached agreement on the terms of their legal separation.
2001, Thursday Death of the English actress Joan Sims.

29th
1509, Friday Death of the Lady Margaret, Countess of Richmond and mother of Henry VII.
1550, Sunday The old church of Austin friars was granted to the Dutch Protestants in London.
1613, Tuesday The Globe Theatre was destroyed by fire fire during a performance of Henry VIII.
1660, Friday Mr Pepys gets his warrant to be Clerk of the Acts but hears that his predecessor is still alive and coming up to town to re-occupy the position.
1717, Saturday The King's Theatre, Haymarket was closed for three years.
1761, Monday The City Road, from Angel to Finsbury Square and an extension of the New Road was opened.
1809, Thursday Captain John Sutherland Commander of the British Armed Transport, The Friends. Executed at Execution Dock for the Murder of his Cabin-Boy.
1824, Tuesday At Drury Lane, 13 year old Franz Liszt gave a demonstration of the new Piano Forte invented by Sebastian Erard.
1855, Friday The Daily Telegraph was launched.
1861, Saturday Death of the English poet, Londoner Elizabeth Barrett Browning.
1865, Thursday Birth of the English tenor, Londoner John Coates.
1895, Saturday Death of the English biologist, Londoner T H Huxley.
1909, Tuesday One hundred and twenty suffragettes were arrested outside Parliament and No. 10 Downing Street.
1915, Tuesday The Arundel Estate, between Shaftesbury Avenue and Coventry Street was sold for a record 250,000.
1927, Wednesday An eclipse of the Sun was partial over London but full over noethern Britain.
1937, Tuesday At a meeting in London, Germany and Italy opposed Anglo-French patrols around Spain.

30th
1541, Wednesday Henry VIII began his Royal progress to York which would last until the end of September.
1614, Wednesday Mr Chamberlain discusses the aftermath of the dissolution of the Addled parliament.
1614, Wednesday The Globe Theatre, rebuilt after the fire of 1613, was opened.
1660, Saturday Mr Pepys is offered 150 to share his place as Clerk of Works and for help in keeping the previous incumbent out.
1660, Saturday Death of the English mathematician William Oughtred.
1685, Tuesday Birth of the English poet, Londoner John Gay.
1797, Friday John Hatchard opened his bookshop at 190 Piccadilly.
1824, Wednesday The church of St Mark in Kennington, designed by D R Roper, was opened.
1893, Friday Birth of the English politician, Londoner Harold Laski.
1894, Saturday Tower Bridge was officially opened by the Prince of Wales.
1909, Wednesday Suffragettes besieged the House of Commons.
1910, Thursday The 120 suffragettes arrested in last night's disturbancesat Whitehall were released.
1910, Thursday Birth of the English novelist Winston (Mawdsley) Graham.
1911, Wednesday The Asquith government advised George V to create peers who favour a weaker upper house.
1919, Monday Death of the English scientist John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh.
1929, Sunday Alfred Hitchcock's Blackmail, the first talking film made in England, established him as a master of the obsessional thriller.
1930, Monday The Government promised independence to Iraq.
1932, Thursday A group of British businessmen acquired the rights to the new rubber latex manufacturing process.
1973, Saturday Death of the English author Nancy Mitford.
1976, Wednesday The leader of the Spaghetti-House siege in South Kensington, Franklin Davies was jailed for 21 years.
1987, Tuesday Rupert Murdoch bought the Today newspaper from the Lonrho group.
1992, Tuesday Mrs Thatcher was introduced to the House of Lords as Baroness Thatcher.
1993, Wednesday The City Police announced that an anti-terrorist cordon was to be constructed around the City's square mile.
1998, Tuesday Violence erupted at the inquiry into the murder of black teenager Stephen Lawrence when the five suspects left the courtroom.

Outside London

22nd
1527, Saturday Death of the Italian politician and diplomat Niccol Machiavelli.
1555, Saturday Birth of the Spanish painter Francisco Ribalta.
1633, Saturday Galileo Galilei was tried by the Inquisition and forced to recant and to abjure the theories of Copernicus.
1653, Wednesday Birth of the French cardinal Andr -Hercule de Fleury.
1699, Thursday Birth of the French painter Jean Chardin.
1738, Thursday Birth of the French poet Jacques Delille.
1792, Friday Birth of the Scottish inventor James Beaumont Neilson.
1805, Saturday Birth of the Italian patriot Giuseppe Mazzini.
1837, Thursday Birth of the German mathematician Paul Bachmann.
1856, Sunday Birth of the English novelist H Rider Haggard.
1860, Friday Birth of the Italian mathematician Mario Pieri.
1864, Wednesday Birth of the Russian mathematician Hermann Minkowski.
1873, Sunday Birth of the Italian entomologist Filippo Silvestri.
1892, Wednesday Death of the French mathematician Pierre Bonnet.
1900, Friday Birth of the Russian Mezzo-Soprano Jennie Tourel.
1903, Monday A hundred thousand workers demonstrated in Castleford, West Yorkshire against a rise in customs duties.
1906, Friday Birth of the Austro-Hungarian screenplay writer Billy Wilder [Samuel Wilder].
1910, Wednesday Birth of the English mountaineer John Hunt.
1910 Wednesday Birth of the English tenor Peter Pears.
1925, Monday Death of the German mathematician Felix Klein.
1930, Sunday Birth of the American pianist Paul Jacobs.
1932, Wednesday Birth of the English actress Prunella Scales.
1933, Thursday Birth of the Czech conductor Libor Pesek.
1940, Saturday Birth of the English television presenter Esther Rantzen.
1940, Saturday Death of the German meteorologist Wladimir K ppen.
1949, Wednesday Birth of the French violinist Pierre Amoyal.
1949, Wednesday Birth of the American film actress Meryl Streep.
1965, Tuesday Death of the American film producer David O. Selznick.
1969, Sunday Death of the American film actress Judy Garland.
1974, Saturday Death of French composer Darius Milhaud.
1978, Thursday Evidence of the first moon of Pluto was discovered.
1984, Friday Death of the American film director Joseph Losey.
1987, Monday Death of the American dancer and film actor Fred Astaire.
1990, Friday Death of the Soviet physicist Ilya Mikhaylovich Frank (Nobel 1958).

23rd

79 CE, Wednesday Death of the Roman emperor Vespasian.
1537, Saturday Death of the Spanish explorer Pedro de Mendoza.
1611, Monday English navigator Henry Hudson and eight others were cast adrift by mutineers in Hudson Bay. The mutineers returned to England, but Hudson and his companions were never seen again.
1612, Tuesday Birth of the Belgian mathematician Andrea Tacquet.
1646, Tuesday Birth of the German philosopher Gottfried Leibniz.
1668, Tuesday Birth of the Italian philosopher Giovanni Battista Vico.
1683, Saturday William Penn signed a peace treaty with the Leni-Lennape tribe and purchased Land in Pennsylvania.
1685, Tuesday Birth of the Italian singer Antonio Bernacchi.
1750, Saturday Birth of the French geologist Dieudonn Dolomieu.
1757, Thursday British troops under Robert Clive captured Plassey, in Bengal, and recovered Calcutta.
1763, Thursday Birth of Josephine de Beauharnais the wife of Napoleon.
1775, Friday Birth of the French physicist tienne-Louis Malus.
1824, Wednesday Birth of the German pianist, composer, conductor and teacher Carl Reineke.
1832, Saturday Birth of the Italian tenor and singing teacher Giovanni Sbriglia.
1846, Tuesday Birth of the French Egyptologist Gaston Maspero.
1848, Friday The saxophone was patented by Adolphe Sax.
1881, Thursday Death of the German botanist Matthias Jakob Schleiden.
1889, Sunday Birth of the Russian poet Anna Akhmatova.
1891, Tuesday Death of the German mathematician Wilhelm Weber.
1892, Thursday Birth of the Polish pianist and teacher Mieczyslaw Horzowski.
1901, Sunday Birth of the German astronomer Otto Heckmann.
1910, Thursday Birth of the French playwright Jean Anouilh.
1927, Thursday Birth of the Scottish tenor Kenneth McKellar.
1942, Tuesday Germany's latest fighter, a Focke-Wulf FW190, was captured intact when it mistakenly lands in Wales.
1943, Wednesday Birth of the American conductor James Levine.
1956, Saturday Birth of the American soprano Sylvia Mcnair.
1959, Tuesday In London, Dr. Klaus Emil Fuchs, jailed for passing A-bomb secrets to the USSR, was released.
1964, Tuesday In the US, Arthur Melin obtained a patent for the hula-hoop.
1973, Saturiday Pope Paul VI opened the Vatican gallery of modern art.
1980, Monday Death of the Scottish actor John Laurie.
1982, Wednesday A record low temperature of -47 degrees centigrade was recorded at the South Pole.
1995, Friday Scientists in the US reported that they had isolated a gene that predisposes some people to cancers.

24th

1314, Monday Robert the Bruce defeated Edward II at Bannockburn and so completed his expulsion of the English from Scotland.
1519, Friday Death of the much maligned Lucrezia Borgia, Duchess of Ferrara.
1616, Monday Birth of the Dutch painter Ferdinand Bol.
1650, Monday Birth of John Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough.
1832, Sunday Death of the Russian mathematician Timofei Osipovsky.
1850, Monday Birth of the Irish soldier and statesman Horatio, Lord Kitchener.
1854, Saturday First performance of Schubert's opera Alfonso and Estrella produced by Liszt at Weimar.
1865, Saturday Birth of the Irish baritone H. Plunket Green.
1880, Thursday Death of the French mathematician Jules Lissajous.
1880, Thursday Birth of the American mathematician Oswald Veblen.
1906, Sunday Birth of the French cellist Pierre Fournier.
1915, Thursday Birth of the English astronomer Fred Hoyle.
1921, Friday The world's largest airship, the R-38, built in the U.K. for the U.S. Navy, made its maiden flight at Bedford.
1930, Tuesday Birth of the French film director Claude Chabrol.
1935, Monday Richard Strauss' Die Schweigsame Frau premieres at The Dresden Opera.
1960, Friday Jacob Epstein's last major work, St Michael and the Devil, was unveiled at Coventry Cathedral.
1981, Wednesday The new Humber bridge was opened to traffic.
1996, Monday Slate goes on line, claiming to be the first magazine produced solely for the internet.
1998, Wednesday Paleontologists announced the discovery of evidence of two feathered dinosaurs in northeast China, giving added support to the theory that birds are descended from dinosaurs.

25th
930, Friday Death of Hucbald the French Benedictine monk who devised the music stave.
1646, Thursday The surrender of Oxford to the Roundheads virtually signified the end of the English Civil War.
1671, Sunday Death of the Italian astronomer Giovanni Riccioli.
1767, Thursday Death of the German composer Georg Philipp Telemann.
1822, Tuesday Death of the German writer E T A Hoffmann.
1840, Thursday For the 400th anniversary of the Gutenberg Printing Press, Mendelssohn premiered his Symphony No. 2, Lobegesang (Song of Praise) at Thomaskirche in Leipzig.
1850, Tuesday Premiere of Schumann's opera Genoveva in Leipzig.
1855, Monday Birth of the Hungarian soprano Etelka Gerster.
1860, Monday Birth of the French composer Gustave Charpentier.
1864, Saturday Birth of the German physical chemist Walter Hermann Nernst.
1867, Tuesday Barbed wire was patented in the United States.
1886, Friday After the sudden resignation of the musical director of the Rio de Janeiro Opera the 19 year old cellist Arturo Toscanini conducted the performance to great acclaim.
1897, Friday Death of the English novelist Margaret Oliphant.
1898, Saturday Death of the German pioneering bacteriologist Ferdinand Cohn.
1900, Monday Birth of Lord Louis Mountbatten of Burma.
1903, Thursday Birth of the English essayist and novelist George Orwell.
1907, Tuesday Birth of the German physicist Hans Jensen.
1908, Thursday Birth of the American philosopher W V Quine.
1911, Sunday Birth of American biochemist William Howard Stein.
1924, Wednesday Birth of the American film director Sidney Lumet.
1925, Thursday Birth of the American actress June Lockhart.
1936, Thursday American Airlines conducted the first commercial DC-3 flight.
1938, Saturday Douglas Hyde, a Protestant, was inaugurated as the first President of Ireland under the new constitution.
1941, Wednesday Death of the German mathematician Alfred Pringsheim.
1968, Tuesday Suicide of the English comedian Tony Hancock.
1974, Tuesday The first checkout scanner was installed in a supermarket.
1978, Sunday Death of the Chinese mathematician Hsien Chung Wang.
1984, Monday Death of the French philosopher Michel Foucault.
1995, Sunday Death of the Irish physicist Ernest Walton (Nobel 1951).
1997, Wednesday Death of the French oceanographer Jacques Cousteau.

26th
1274, Tuesday Death of the Persian mathematician Nasir al-Din al-Tusi.
1498, Tuesday The toothbrush was invented in China.
1519, Sunday Martin Luther's public disputation on doctrine with Johann Eck began at Leipzig.
1541, Sunday Assassination of the Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro.
1666, Tuesday Death of the English scholar and diplomat Richard Fanshawe.
1730, Friday Birth of the French astronomer Charles Messier.
1791, Sunday Birth of the Scottish encyclopaedist and civil engineer John Mactaggart.
1793, Wednesday Death of the English clergyman and naturalist Gilbert White.
1810, Tuesday Death of the French balloonist Joseph-Michel Montgolfier.
1824, Saturday Birth of the British physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin.
1827, Tuesday Death of the English inventor of the spinning mule Samuel Crompton.
1870, Sunday Premiere of Wagner's Die Walkure in Munich.
1878, Wednesday Birth of the German mathematician Leopold L wenheim.
1883, Tuesday Death of the Irish astronomer Sir Edward Sabine.
1885, Friday Birth of the German soprano Frieda Hempel.
1892, Sunday Birth of the American novelist Pearl S Buck.
1894, Tuesday The first U.S. patent for a gasoline-driven automobile was issued to Karl Benz of Germany.
1898, Sunday Birth of the German aircraft designer Willy Messerschmitt.
1900, Tuesday Birth of the American tenor Richard Crooks.
1902, Thursday Birth of the Swiss tenor Hugues Cuenod.
1904, Sunday Birth of the Hungarian film actor Peter Lorre.
1911, Monday Birth of the English electronics engineer Sir Frederic Williams.
1911, Monday Birth of the Danish mathematician Ernst Witt.
1912, Wednesday Premiere of Mahler's Ninth Symphony with Bruno Walter conducting in Vienna.
1914, Friday Birth of the German tenor Wolfgang Windgassen.
1914, Friday Birth of the English poet and author Laurie Lee.
1916, Monday Birth of the Italian baritone Giuseppe Taddei.
1933, Monday Birth of the Italian conductor Claudio Abbado.
1959, Friday Queen Elizabeth II and the American President Dwight Eisenhower dedicated the new St. Lawrence Seaway.
1974, Wednesday At 8:01 a.m., a package of Wrigley's chewing gum with a bar code printed on it passed over a scanner at the Marsh Supermarket, Troy, Ohio, and became the first product ever logged under the new Universal Product Code (UPC) computerized recognition system.
1976, Saturday The CN tower in Toronto, the world's tallest self-supporting structure, opened to the public.
1997, Thursday American mathematician Andrew Wiles was awarded the Wolfskehl Prize for solving Fermat's Last Theorem, the most notorious problem in mathematics.

27th
1571, Wednesday Death of the Italian painter and art historian Giorgio Vasari.
1743, Monday The French were defeated at Dettingen by George II. This was the last time that a British monarch personally led his forces on the battlefield.
1795, Saturday A British force landed at Quiberon to aid the revolt in Brittany.
1801, Thursday During the Napoleonic Wars, Cairo fell to English forces.
1816, Thursday Death of the British admiral Samuel Hood.
1844, Thursday Death of the founder of the Mormons Joseph Smith.
1846, Saturday Birth of the Irish nationalist leader Charles Stewart Parnell.
1850, Thursday Birth of the Danish mathematician Jorgen Gram.
1932, Monday Birth of the American soprano Anna Moffo.
1952, Friday Death of the German mathematician Max Dehn.
1956, Wednesday Birth of the American soprano Nancy Gustafson.
1996, Thursday The Galileo spacecraft passed by Ganymede, Jupiter's largest moon, taking pictures and revealing surface-structure details.
1997, Friday The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft flew within 1,200 km of the asteroid Mathilde, taking high-resolution photographs and revealing a 25 km crater covering the asteroid.

28th
767, Sunday Death of Pope Paul I.
1519, Tuesday Charles I of Spain, Sicily and Sardinia, was elected Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V.
1577, Friday Birth of the Dutch painter Peter Paul Rubens.
1712, Saturday Birth of the French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
1719, Sunday Birth of the Italian playwright Luigi Pirandello.
1815, Wednesday Birth of the German composer Robert Franz.
1831, Tuesday Birth of the Hungarian violinist and conductor Joseph Joachim.
1841, Monday Premiere of Adolphe Adam's ballet Giselle in Paris.
1861, Friday 1861 Death of the Irish explorer of Australia Robert Burke.
1871, Wednesday Birth of the Italian soprano Luisa Tetrazzini.
1875, Monday Birth of the French mathematician Henri Lebesgue.
1902, Saturday Birth of the American composer Richard Rodgers.
1919, Saturday The Treaty of Versailles, formally ending the First World War was signed.
1936, Sunday Birth of the English actor John Inman.
1960, Tuesday Twenty-eight miners died in a pit accident at the village of Six Bells, Monmouthshire.
1984, Thursday Death of the French mathematician Claude Chevalley.
1993, Monday Death of the Bulgarian bass Boris Christoff.

29th
1744, Friday Death of the French composer Andre Campra.
1798, Friday Birth of the Italian poet Giacomo Leopardi.
1830, Tuesday Premiere of the complete Missa Solemnis by Beethoven, at Warnsdorf, Bohemia.
1868, Tuesday Birth of the American astronomer George Ellery Hale.
1893, Thursday Birth of the Czech mathematician Eduard Cech.
1893, Thursday Birth of the Russian astronomer Mikhail Fedorovich Subbotin.
1900, Friday Birth of the French author and aviator Antoine de Saint-Exup ry.
1901, Saturday Birth of the American singer and film actor Nelson Eddy.
1914, Monday Birth of the Czech-Swiss conductor Rafael Kubelik.
1940, Saturday Death of the Swiss painter Paul Klee.
1941, Sunday Death of the Polish pianist Ignaz Jan Paderewski.
1948, Tuesday Birth of the Bulgarian conductor Emil Tchakarov.
1963, Saturday Birth of the German violinist Anne-Sophie Mutter.
1995, Thursday The American space shuttle Atlantis docked with the Russian space station Mir 400km above central Asia.

30th
1596, Wednesday An English expedition under Lord Howard of Effingham and the Earl of Essex sacked Cadiz, ravaged the Spanish coast, and captured much booty.
1597, Thursday Birth of the Dutch explorer Willem Barents.
1706, Sunday Birth of the American scientist and diplomat Benjamin Franklin.
1717, Sunday Birth of the Bohemian composer and violinist Johann Stamitz.
1722, Saturday Birth of the Bohemian composer Jiri Antonin Benda.
1791, Thursday Birth of the French physicist Felix Savart.
1798, Saturday Birth of the Scottish scholar and editor Alexander Dyce.
1845, Monday Birth of the Italian tenor Italo Campanini.
1848, Friday Birth of the German mathematician Eugen Netto.
1879, Monday Final performance by Bohemian soprano Teresa Stolz (Stolsova) in Verdi's Requiem, at La Scala, Milan.
1880, Wednesday Birth of the Swiss mathematician Rudolf Fueter.
1891, Tuesday Birth of the English painter Stanley Spencer.
1900, Saturday Birth of the Romanian mathematician Gheorghe Vranceanu.
1931, Tuesday Birth of the Scottish conductor James Loughran.
1958, Monday Birth of the Finnish conductor Esa-Pekka Salonen.
1963, Sunday Birth of the English actor Rupert Graves.
1972, Friday Death of the Russian mathematician Yuri Linnik.
1994, Thursday In Paris, the International Earth Rotation Service advanced the world's atomic clocks by one second.

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