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ENGLAND
Samuel Pepys
Elizabeth I
London's Underworld
Fleet Marriages.
The Cries of London
Updated.




"To where Fleet-ditch with disemboguing streams
Rolls the large tribute of dead dogs to Thames,
The King of Dykes ! Than whom no sluice of mud,
With deeper sable blots the silver flood.
'Here strip, my children ! Here at once leap in,
Here prove who best can dash through thick and thin,
And the most in love of dirt excel
Or dark dexterity of groping well."



-- Alexander Pope (Dunciad)




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June Week 3
Posted on Jun 10, 2002 - 05:21 AM by Bill McCann

This page provides daily updates on past events and anniversaries during the Third week of June. The events included are those that either happened in London or had an effect, one way or another, on the lives of Londoners.


Daily updates on Events during the Third week


Below are the events and anniversaries for this week both about London and Londoners and Outside London.

The archive for these pages has been arranged in a series of monthly Digests. To speed up navigation, these have been further divided into four weekly instalments. These pages are all comprehensively interlinked.

Each Section has its own background page which provides additional and in-depth information about many of the events and people in the daily listings. They are intended to both amuse and inform and can be found at Gazette Briefings and Historical Anecdotes .

Links to the anniversaries and events in the other weeks of the month are given in the following table whilst links to the other months of the year can be found at the bottom of the page.

First WeekSecond WeekFinal Week

London and Londoners

15th

1330, Friday Birth of Edward, the Black Prince.
1381, Saturday In the Peasant's Revolt, Wat Ttyer was killed by the Mayor of London during a parley with the King at Smithfield.
1560, Saturday Henry VIII's jester Will Sommers was buried.
1594, Saturday Edward Alleyn reassembled The Admiral's Men at The Rose Theatre to open the new season.
1615, Thursday Mr Chamberlain reports on the lack of progress in parliament, an enquiry into the new buildings erected within seven miles of London, the rumour that Baronies can now be bought and the publication of Camden's Annales.
1660, Friday Mr Pepys is surprised at the ease at which the Commissioners of the Navy paid his bill and has a very social day.
1733, Friday The Opera of the Nobility, patronised by the Prince of Wales, started as rival to Handel and persuaded all but one of his singers to defect.
1855, Friday The abolition of Stamp duty on British newspapers was announced.
1870, Wednesday In the House of commons, the Ayes and the Noes tied on 181 on a Motion to put the question on the second reading of the Representation of the People Acts Amendment Bill. The speaker, J Evelyn Denison, cast his vote with the Ayes.
1904, Wednesday At a London conference, Brazilian envoys settled the border dispute between Brazil and British Guyana.
1921, Wednesday It was announced that a total of two million workers were involved in pay disputes.
1925, Monday Birth of the English broadcaster Richard Baker.
1928, Friday The House of commons voted to fix the date of Easter. However, a clause in the Bill allowed the consideration of the opinions of all the major churches and the Act was never put in force.
1936, Monday The Government announced that it would abandon sanctions against Italy.
1941, Sunday Death of the English poet and mystic Evelyn Underhill.
1945, Friday A Royal Proclamation officially ended a parliament that had lasted nine and a half years.
1974, Saturday In the National Gallery, IRA members scratched two-foot high letters onn Ruben's Adoration of the Magi.
1993, Tuesday Death of the English motor-racing driver James Hunt.
1997, Sunday Death of the English cartoonist Kim Casali.
1998, Monday The new two-pound coin went into general circulation.

16th

1514, Saturday Birth of the English classical scholar John Cheke.
1660, Saturday Mr Pepys goes out in one shirt and suffers much cold and pain and finds attendance at Court infinitely tedious.
1722, Saturday Death of the English general John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough.
1731, Wednesday The Gentlemen's Magazine reports that Burroghs, Ogilby, Cooper, and Curtis, sentenced on June 3, were executed at Tyburn.
1836, Thursday The London Working Men's Association was formed marking the beginning of the Chartist Movement.
1871, Friday The University Test Acts, which allowed students to enter Oxford and Cambridge without religious tests, came into force.
1912, Sunday Birth of the English politician Enoch Powell.
1915, Wednesday David Lloyd George was appointed first Minister for Munitions.
1918, Sunday Men of 50 were ordered to report for military service as required.
1929, Sunday Death of the English religious leader General Bramwell Booth, founder of the Salvation Army.
1931, Tuesday The Bank of England offered 150 million Austrian schilling in aid to the Austrian national bank.
1934, Saturday The Air Secretary, Lord Londonderry pledged to build up British military air strength.
1946, Sunday The Government formally invited India to set up an interim government.
1953, Tuesday Death of the British politician and trade-unionist Margaret Bondfield.
1971, Wednesday Death of the British broadcasting pioneer John Reith.
1987, Tuesday Officials of the Liberal party agreed to a merger of the Liberal and the Social Democratic parties.

17th

1239, Friday Birth of Edward I.
1579, Wednesday Francis Drake proclaimed England's sovereignty over New Albion (California).
1602, Wednesday Mr Chamberlain reports on the reluctance of Sir Thomas Parry to take up his post as Ambassador at Paris.
1660, Sunday Mr Pepys hears organs playing again at Whitehall and sees many Beauties at Gray's Inn.
1703, Thursday Birth of the English evangelist John Wesley.
1719, Wednesday Death of the English essayist and poet Joseph Addison.
1731, Thursday The Gentlemen's Magazine reports that the Royal Society hears of the strange effects of a distillation on the bodies of dogs and women in Ireland and experiments with a new air gun from Italy.
1789, Wednesday The Italian Opera [King's Theatre] in the Haymarket was destroyed by fire.
1832, Sunday Birth of the English chemist William Crookes.
1898, Friday Death of the English painter Edward Burne-Jones.
1901, Monday In the House of Commons, David Lloyd George spoke out against the alarming death rate among Boer women and children in the South African concentration camps.
1940, Monday In a radio broadcast, Winston Churchill urged Britain to conduct herself so that this will be remembered as her finest hour.
1980, Tuesday The Ministry of Defence announced plans to deploy American Cruise missiles at Greenham Common and Molesworth military bases.
1999, Thursday Death of Cardinal Basil Hume, Archbishop of Westminster.

18th

1178, Sunday A possible meteor impact on the moon was witnessed from southern England about an hour after sunset.
1546, Friday Anne Askew was interrogated at Guildhall.
1625, Saturday The first parliament of Charles I was convened.
1657, Thursday Mr Evelyn inspects a strange cat at Greenwich.
1660, Monday Mr Pepys hears that he is to be appointed to the Office of Clerk of Acts.
1701, Wednesday Herman Strodtman was executed at Tyburn for the Murder of Peter Wolter, his Fellow-Apprentice.
1817, Wednesday John Rennie's Waterloo Bridge was opened.
1871, Sunday Death of the English historian and politician, Londoner George Grote.
1902, Wednesday Death of the English novelist Samuel Butler.
1903, Thursday Sixteen people were killed in an explosion at Woolwich Arsenal.
1907, Tuesday George Bernard Shaw and Mark Twain met in London.
1912, Tuesday An Amendment to the Irish Home Rule Bill, exclude four Ulster counties, cut the government majority to 69.
1927, Saturday Birth of the English actor, Londoner Paul Edington.
1928, Monday In London, the keel was laid for biggest ship yet, the 1,000-foot, 60,000-ton Oceanic.
1934, Monday In London, Official reports indicated that people are getting used to pedestrian crossings.
1943, Friday Field Marshal Archibald Wavell became Viceroy of India.
1945, Monday Birth of the English horn player and conductor Anthony Halstead.
1956, Monday Anthony Eden and Clement Attlee were invested as Knights of the Order of the Garter.
1965, Friday The Government announced the introduction of a legal blood alcohol limit for drivers.
1970, Thursday The Conservative Party under Edward Heath won the General Election.
1972, Sunday In the UK's worst air disaster, 118 people died when a BEA Trident stalled and crashed on takeoff from Heathrow.
1990, Monday The government cancelled its order for 33 Tornado jets.

19th

1619, Saturday Mr Chamberlain reports two cases of the smallpox in Ladies whose years ought to have prevented it.
1660, Tuesday Mr Pepys receives gifts of money for favours and a mysterious gift of chocolate.
1661, Wednesday Mr Evelyn and his fellow members of the Royal Society try out a poison on birds.
1662, Thursday Mr Evelyn spends two weeks on the estate of the newly restored Duke of Norfolk.
1707, Thursday Death of the English prelate, Londoner William Sherlock.
1731, Saturday A grant from the Crown passed the seals to allow the Heralds of Scotland the same fees as the English.
1809, Monday The Act preventing the sale of parliamentary seats was passed.
1820, Monday Death of the English botanist, Londoner Joseph Banks.
1829, Friday Peel's Act, establishing a police force in London and its suburbs, was passed.
1832, Thursday Dennis Collins threw a stone at William IV during the Ascot Races.
1861, Wednesday In the House of Commons, the Ayes and the Nays were tied on a Motion to give a third reading to the Church Rates Abolition Bill now, and not in three months. The Speaker cast his vote with the Nays.
1897, Saturday Birth of the English physical chemist, Londoner Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood (Nobel 1956).
1899, Monday First performance of Elgar's Enigma Variations by the Halle Orch at Queen's Hall at a Hans Richter concert.
1902, Thursday Death of the English historian John Dalberg, 1st Baron Acton.
1904, Sunday Admiral Sir John Fisher was appointed First Sea Lord.
1914, Friday Death in London of the English actor and playwright Brandon Thomas.
1916, Monday Tribich Lincoln, former MP for Darlington, was committed for trial for spying.
1917, Tuesday The Royal Family renounced German names and titles, having adopted the name of Windsor.
1917, Tuesday The Act allowing British Women over the age of 30 to vote came into force.
1918, Wednesday The government announced the introduction of general rationing.
1920, Saturday British warships were ordered to Turkey.
1927, Sunday Twenty thousand people take part in a Festival of Youth at Crystal Palace.
1928, Tuesday Birth of the English television scriptwriter, Londoner Barry Took.
1930, Thursday Parliament rejected a Conservatives proposal to reduce unemployment payments.
1937, Saturday Death of the Scottish writer J M Barrie.
1947, Thursday Ernest Bevin, at the Foreign Affairs Minsitry, warned the U.S.S.R. that the period of appeasement was over.
1961, Monday Britain relinquished its protectorate over oil-rich Kuwait but continued to provide military aid.
1970, Friday Following the General election defeat, Harold Wilson resigned as prime minister and was replaced by Edward Heath.
1982, Saturday Italian banker Roberto Calvi was found hanged from Blackfriars Bridge.
1990, Tuesday The Child Support Agency was given power to have money taken from absent fathers' wage packets at source.
1996, Wednesday Britain offered to slaughter up to 67,000 more cattle in an effort to end the ban on British beef.
1997, Thursday The American fast-food chain McDonalds won a two-year libel case in Britain against two environmental campaigners who claimed that the company caused environmental damage and exploited workers in the Third World.
1997, Thursday William Hague won the leadership of the Conservative Party, defeating center-left rival Kenneth Clarke by 92 votes to 70.

20th

1509, Wednesday The new king, Henry VIII, and his new wife, Katharine of Aragon, ride triumphantly through the City.
1544, Friday Although closed in the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the hospital at St Bartholomew's was re-founded.
1597, Monday Death of the Dutch explorer Willem Barents.
1615, Tuesday Birth of the Italian painter Salvator Rosa.
1649, Wednesday Death of the public hangman, Richard Brandon who had executed Charles I.
1660, Wednesday Mr Pepys has a busy day but manages a draught or two.
1665, Tuesday Mr Evelyn arranges funds to provide for the sick and wounded from the battle.
1674, Saturday Birth of the English poet and dramatist Nicholas Rowe.
1716, Wednesday First performance of Handel's Concerto Grosso, Op. 3 No. 4 at the King's Theatre, Haymarket.
1728, Thursday St John Smith Square was consecrated.
1790, Sunday The Sunday Chronicle announced that it would publish at 4 a.m. on Sunday morning instead of Saturday night. All the Sunday papers adopted the practice about this time.
1837, Tuesday Death of William IV.
1837, Tuesday Queen Victoria succeeded to the throne.
1837, Tuesday Hanover was automatically separated from Britain, as Salic Law forbids female succession, and the throne was taken by Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, the eldest surviving son of George III.
1838, Wednesday In the House of Commons, on a Motion to proceed with amendments to the Small Debts (Scotland) Bill, and not recommit it the Ayes and the Nays tied on 111. The Speaker cast his vote with the Nays.
1868, Saturday Birth of the English conductor, Londoner Sir Dan Godfrey.
1875, Sunday Birth of the English geneticist Reginald Crundall Punnett.
1901, Thursday First performance of Elgar's Cockaigne Overture, In London Town at a London Philharmonic Society concert.
1934, Wednesday The controversial dismantling of Rennie's Waterloo Bridge began with Herbert Morrison removing the first stone.
1959, Saturday Veteran Labour politician Herbert Morrison announced that he would retire after the next general election.
1966, Monday James White was sentenced to 18 years in prison for his part in the Great Train Robbery.
1971, Sunday Britain granted asylum to the USSR space expert Anatol Fedoseyev, one of the most important defectors since 1945.
1978, Tuesday Joyce McKinney, the runaway kidnapper of a Mormon missionary, was sentenced, in her absence, to one year in jail.
1984, Wednesday The Education Secretary, Keith Joseph, approved a new GCSE examination to replace 'O' Levels and CSEs.
1986, Friday In the wake of the Chernobyl disaster, the government ordered a temporary ban on the slaughter and movement of lambs in parts of the country.
1993, Saturday The Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr George Carey, condemned the government's policy on the coal mining industry.
1995, Tuesday At the last minute Shell abandoned its plan to dump the Brent Spar rig in the Atlantic, and provoked a furious reaction from the government.
1997, Friday Former Conservative minister Jonathan Aitken lost his libel action against The Guardian newspaper over allegations that wealthy Arabs paid for him to stay at the Ritz Hotel in Paris while he was a minister.

21st

1293, Sunday Edmund, Earl of Lancaster began Rebuilding the Savoy Mansion.
1377, Sunday Death of Edward III.
1521, Friday The Venetian Ambassador describes London's Midsummer show.
1529, Monday Death of the English poet John Skelton.
1617, Saturday Mr Chamberlain describes a feast in the Italian manner at Highgate.
1652, Monday Death of the English architect, Londoner Inigo Jones.
1660, Thursday Mr Pepys is given a gift of five pieces of gold and a silver tankard for his wife which they later hanselled.
1675, Monday The first Stone of St Paul's was laid by the master mason Thomas Strong.
1683, Thursday Death of the English politician Lord William Russell.
1738, Wednesday Death of the English statesman Charles, Viscount Townshend.
1786, Wednesday Death of the English cabinet-maker George Hepplewhite.
1827, Thursday Home Secretary Robert Peel continued his reform of English criminal law, by reducing the number of capital offences, abolishing the immunity of the clergy from arrest in cases of felony, and by defining the law of offences against property in a simplified form.
1887, Tuesday Queen Victoria's celebrated her Golden Jubilee.
1898, Tuesday Premiere of Faure's incidental music for Maeterlink's Pelleas et Melisande in London.
1901, Friday At a stormy pro-Boer meeting liberals were sharply divided on the question of annexation.
1909, Monday The Liner Mauretania cut 50 minutes off the eastward Atlantic voyage, sailing from New York to London in five days and eight hours.
1918, Friday The government announced that it was to abandon Home Rule and conscription for Ireland.
1922, Wednesday The House of Lords rejected the Bill to establish a Palestine mandate.
1926, Monday The 50th Wimbledon tournament opened with Prince Albert, Duke of York, playing in the Doubles.
1935, Friday A Croydon telephonist won the GPO competition to find a voice for the Speaking Clock.
1936, Sunday Aldous Huxley's Eyeless in Gaza was published.
1947, Saturday The Prime Minister, Clement Attlee, delivered a sharp attack on the U.S.S.R. and its European satellites.
1948, Monday Death of the Scottish biomathematician D'Arcy Thompson.
1972, Wednesday Death of the English zoologist Sir Gavin (Rylands) de Beer.
1978, Wednesday The musical Evita by Andrew Lloyd-Webber opened.
1980, Saturday A memorial to the novelist George Eliot was unveiled in Poet's Corner, Westminster Abbey.

Outside London

15th

1567, Sunday In flight from the Scottish factions, Mary Queen of Scots and her second husband, Bothwell, separate for safety. They would never see each other again.
1605, Saturday Birth of the English poet and playwright Thomas Randolph.
1843, Thursday Birth of the Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg.
1906, Friday In Northampton, Suffragettes disrupted a speech by Herbert Asquith, Chancellor of the Exchequer.
1984, Friday During the last ever miner's strike a miner picketing a Yorkshire power station was killed by a lorry.
1996, Saturday An IRA bomb, the biggest ever to go off on the British mainland, devastated the centre of Manchester.

16th

1464, Saturday Death of the Flemish painter Roger van der Weyden.
1487, Saturday The supporters of the Pretender Lambert Simnel were finally defeated at Stoke-on-Trent.
1586, Thursday Mary Queen of Scots recognised Philip II of Spain as her heir.
1779, Wednesday Spain declared war on Britain and the siege of Gibraltar began.
1890, Monday Birth of the English film comedian Stan Laurel.

17th

1128, Sunday Henry I's daughter, Matilda, widow of Henry V, married Geoffrey Plantagenet of Anjou. She was recognised in England as her father's heir.
1600, Tuesday Birth of the Spanish playwright Pedro Calder n de la Barca.
1617, Tuesday James I met his Scottish Parliament. His proposal that the Scottish lords should surrender to the Crown their hereditable jurisdictions met with vigorous opposition, but the five Articles of Religion, for introducing Anglican principles to Scottish worship were endorsed.
1818, Wednesday Birth of the French composer Charles Gounod.
1882, Saturday Birth of the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky.
1943, Thursday Death of the Scottish novelist Annie S Swan [Mrs Burnett Smith].

18th

1429, Saturday The French, led by Joan of Arc, defeated the English at the Battle of Patay.
1466, Wednesday Birth of the Italian pioneer music printer Ottaviano dei Petrucci.
1621, Monday Birth of the Dutch painter Allart van Everdingen.
1633, Tuesday Charles I was crowned king of Scotland at Edinburgh.
1643, Sunday Death of the English patriot and parliamentarian John Hampden.
1677, Monday Birth of the Italian composer Marc Antonio Bononcini.
1757, Wednesday Birth of the Austrian piano manufacturer and composer Ignaz Joseph Pleyel.
1769, Wednesday Birth of the Irish statesman Robert Stewart, later Viscount Castlereagh.
1799, Tuesday Birth of the English astronomer William Lassell.
1812, Thursday Birth of the Russian novelist and travel writer Ivan Goncharov.
1815, Sunday The Duke of Wellington and Gebhard von Bl cher defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo.
1818, Tuesday Birth of the French composer Charles Gounod.
1821, Monday Weber's Der Freischutz premieres in Berlin.
1827, Monday Birth of the British author and editor Alexander Balloch Grosart.
1845, Monday Birth of the French pioneer parasitologist Alphonse Laveran.
1858, Friday Birth of the Scottish mathematician Andrew Forsyth.
1884, Wednesday Birth of the Australian mathematician Charles Weatherburn.
1886, Friday Birth of the English mountaineer George Mallory.
1901, Tuesday Birth of the American actress and singer Jeanette MacDonald.
1904, Saturday Birth of the French composer Manuel Rosenthal.
1905, Sunday Death of the Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve.
1905, Sunday Birth of the Estonian-Swedish composer Eduard Tubin.
1913, Wednesday Birth of the German mathematician Oswald Teichm ller.
1916, Sunday Birth of the American film actor Richard Boone.
1920, Friday Birth of the English actor Ian Carmichael.
1922, Sunday Death of the Dutch astronomer Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn.
1928, Monday Death of the Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen, , lost this day in the Arctic.
1928, Monday American aviator Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic.
1932, Saturday Birth of the American chemist Dudley R. Herschbach (Nobel 1986).
1936, Thursday Death of the Russian author Maxim Gorky.
1942, Thursday Birth of the Dutch conductor Hans Vonk.
1948, Friday Birth of the Hungarian Soprano Eva Marton.
1953, Thursday Birth of the English pianist Peter Donohoe.
1965, Friday The first large solid-fuel rocket - a Titan 3C - was launched into orbit.
1975, Wednesday The first North Sea Oil was pumped ashore in Scotland.
1980, Wednesday Death of the Polish mathematician Kazimierz Kuratowski.
1984, Monday There were violent clashes between picketing miners and police at the Orgreave coking plant.
1998, Thursday Two doctors involved in the treatment of 29 children who died after heart surgery at Bristol Royal Infirmary were struck off the medical register.

19th

240 BCE, Friday The Greek astronomer and mathematician, Eratosthenes, estimated the circumference of the earth.
1566, Wednesday Birth of James VI of Scotland and I of England.
1608, Sunday Death of the Italian political writer Alberico Gentili.
1608, Sunday Birth of the English antiquarian and clergyman Thomas Fuller.
1623, Thursday Birth of the French mathematician Blaise Pascal.
1669, Saturday Birth of the Russian mathematician Leonty Magnitsky.
1708, Saturday Birth of the German composer Johann Gottlieb Janitsch.
1717, Wednesday Birth of the Bohemian violinist, composer and conductor Johann Wenzel Stamitz.
1749, Monday Death of the English poet Ambrose Philips.
1769, Monday Hyder Ali of Mysore compelled the British at Madras to sign a treaty of mutual assistance.
1770, Tuesday Death of the Spanish mathematician and almanac maker Diego de Torres Villarroel.
1771, Wednesday Birth of the French mathematician Joseph Gergonne.
1783, Thursday Birth of the French writer F licit Robert de Lamennais.
1783, Thursday Birth of the discoverer of morphine, German chemist Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sert rner.
1808, Sunday Death of the Scottish geographer Alexander Dalrymple.
1810, Tuesday Birth of the German violinist Ferdinand David.
1810, Tuesday The Concertina was patented in England by Wheatstone.
1842, Sunday Birth of the Austrian composer Carl Zeller.
1843, Monday Birth of the French composer Charles Edouard Lefebvre.
1849, Tuesday The melodeon was granted a patent. This was a small reed organ, with treadle-operated bellows to draw air through the reeds.
1854, Monday Birth of the Italian composer Alfredo Catalani.
1861, Wednesday Birth of the British field-marshal Douglas Haig.
1896, Friday Birth of the Australian organist George Thabin-Ball organist at the Temple Church.
1896, Friday Birth of the Duchess of Windsor, Wallis Simpson [Bessie Wallis Warfield].
1898, Sunday Birth of the Swiss conductor Paul Muller.
1906, Tuesday Birth of the German-born British bacteriologist Ernst Chain, who helped develop penicillin (Nobel 1945).
1919, Thursday The captured German fleet was destroyed at Scapa Flow, Shetland.
1924, Thursday Birth of the German soprano Anneliesa Rothenberger.
1931, Friday Installation was completed on the first commercial doors operated by photoelectric cell. A magic eye controlled automated swinging doors between the kitchen and main dining room of Wilcox's Pier Restaurant in West Haven, Connecticut.
1934, Tuesday Birth of the Canadian bass-baritone Donald Bell.
1945, Tuesday Death of the Polish mathematician Stefan Mazurkiewicz.
1947, Thursday Birth of the British novelist Salman Rushdie.
1954, Saturday Birth of the American film actress Kathleen Turner.
1963, Wednesday Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in space.
1975, Thursday Over 100 striking stable-boys marched around Ascot racecourse on Gold Cup day.
1993, Saturday Death of the English novelist William Golding.
1996, Wednesday A vast freshwater lake 4 km/2.5 mi under the ice of Antarctica was discovered. The lake covers 14,000 sq km/5,000 sq mi, and is kept from freezing by the friction of the ice and by heat radiating from the earth's core.

20th

1723, Thursday Birth of the Scottish philosopher and historian Adam Ferguson.
1773, Sunday Death of the pioneering German geologist Georg Christian F chsel.
1775, Tuesday Birth of the French mathematician Jacques Fran ais.
1800, Friday Death of the German mathematician Abraham Gotthelf K stner.
1819, Sunday Birth of the German-born French composer Jacques Offenbach.
1838, Wednesday Birth of the German mathematician Theodor Reye.
1861, Thursday Birth of the English biochemist Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (Nobel 1929).
1873, Friday Birth of the German mathematician Alfred Loewy.
1899, Tuesday Birth of the American soprano Helen TraubeL.
1906, Wednesday Birth of the English novelist Catherine Cookson.
1908, Saturday Death of the Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov.
1908, Saturday Count Zeppelin made his first flight in his new airship at Friedrichshafen.
1909, Sunday Birth of the Australian film actor Errol Flynn.
1917, Wednesday Birth of the Polish mathematician Helena Rasiowa.
1920, Sunday Death of the Russian microbiologist Dmitry Iosifovich Ivanovsky.
1925, Saturday Birth of the Austrian pianist Ingrid Haebler.
1934, Wednesday Birth of the English television actress Wendy Craig.
1940, Thursday Death of the German mathematician Wolfang Doeblin.
1941, Friday Birth of the English film director Stephen Frears.
1946, Thursday Birth of the American pianist Andre Watts.
1952, Friday Birth of the Indian writer Vikram Seth.
1958, Friday The prototype Westland Wessex helicopter made its first flight at Yeovil, Somerset.
1958, Friday Death of the German chemist Kurt Alder (Nobel 1950).
1963, Thursday Death of the French mathematician Rapha l Salem.
1966, Monday Death of the Belgian astronomer and cosmologist Georges Lema tre.

21st

1547, Tuesday Death of the Italian painter Sebastiano del Piombo.
1615, Wednesday Birth of the Italian composer, lutenist and painter Salvator Rosa.
1732, Wednesday Birth of the German composer Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach.
1781, Thursday Birth of the French mathematician Sim on Poisson.
1798, Thursday British General Gerard Lake defeated Irish patriots at Vinegar Hill and entered Wexford, ending the Irish Rebellion.
1813, Monday The Duke of Wellington completely routed the French at Vittoria, forcing the Spanish king, Napoleon's brother Joseph, to return to France.
1820, Wednesday Death of the French physicist Al xis Petit.
1825, Tuesday Birth of the English historian William Stubbs.
1828, Saturday Birth of the Italian mathematician Giuseppe Bruno.
1857, Sunday Death of the French chemist and teacher Louis-Jacques Thenard.
1863, Sunday Birth of the German astronomer Max Wolf.
1868, Sunday Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg premieres in Munich with Hans von Bulow conducting.
1874, Sunday Death of the Swedish pioneering spectroscopist Anders Jonas ngstr m.
1876, Wednesday Birth of the Dutch physicist Willem Hendrik Keesom.
1884, Saturday Birth of the British field-marshal Claude Auchinleck.
1887, Tuesday Britain annexed Zululand, blocking the attempt of Transvaal to gain communication with the coast.
1890, Saturday First performance of Richard Strauss' tone poem Death and Transfiguration with the composer conducting in Eisenach.
1891, Sunday Birth of the German conductor Hermann Scherchen.
1905, Wednesday Birth of the French philosopher, novelist, and playwright Jean-Paul Sartre.
1913, Saturday Death of the French mathematician Gaston Tarry.
1920, Monday Birth of the American film actress Jane Russell.
1928, Thursday Birth of the American soprano Judith Raskin.
1935, Friday Birth of the French novelist Fran oise Sagan.
1940, Friday Death of the French painter Jean-Edouard Vuillard.
1957, Friday Death of the German phsysicist Johannes Stark (Nobel 1919).
1963, Friday Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini was elected Pope, he took the name Paul VI.
1996, Friday Britain and other members of the EU reached an agreement for the phased lifting of the ban on British beef. French farmers, however, blockaded two channel ports.
1996, Friday A new species of monkey, Callithrip saterei, was discovered in the rainforests of Brazil. The monkey is orange-haired and about the size of a squirrel.

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