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ENGLAND
Samuel Pepys
Elizabeth I
London's Underworld
Fleet Marriages.
The Cries of London
Updated.




"Now from all parts the swelling kennels flow,
And bear their trophies with them as they go:
Filth of all hues and odours seem to tell
What street they sail'd from, by their sight and smell ...
Sweepings from butchers' stalls, dung, guts, and blood,
Drown'd puppies, shaking sprats, all drenched in mud,
Dead cats, and turnip tops, come tumbling down the flood."


-- Jonathan Swift (describing the Fleet River)



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June Week 2
Posted on Jun 10, 2002 - 05:18 AM by Bill McCann

This page provides daily updates on past events and anniversaries during the Second week of June. The events included are those that either happened in London or had an effect, one way or another, on the lives of Londoners.


Daily updates on Events during the Second week


Below are the events and anniversaries for this week both about London and Londoners and Outside London.

The archive for these pages has been arranged in a series of monthly Digests. To speed up navigation, these have been further divided into four weekly instalments. These pages are all comprehensively interlinked.

Each Section has its own background page which provides additional and in-depth information about many of the events and people in the daily listings. They are intended to both amuse and inform and can be found at Gazette Briefings and Historical Anecdotes .

Links to the anniversaries and events in the other weeks of the month are given in the following table whilst links to the other months of the year can be found at the bottom of the page.

First WeekThird WeekFinal Week

London and Londoners

8th

1042, Tuesday Death of Harthacnut, King of England and Denmark. He was succeeded in Denmark by Magnus, King of Norway.
1042, Tuesday Accession of Edward the Confessor.
1533, Sunday Parliament extinguished papal authority in England.
1536, Thursday Parliament settled the succession on the future children of Henry VIII by Jane Seymour and declared the Princesses Mary and Elizabeth illegitimate.
1608, Tuesday The dramatist John Marston was imprisoned in Newgate for "some Reflections on the Scots".
1616, Saturday Mr Chamberlain reports that the Somersets may yet enjoy the King's mercy and that the Lord Chief Justice Edward Coke has fallen from grace.
1622, Saturday Mr Chamberlain reports on the confusion of mind wrought by the religious question.
1625, Wednesday Birth of the Italian astronomer Giovanni Cassini.
1660, Friday Mr Pepys visits Becket's tomb and kisses a " good handsome wench ".
1663, Monday At the Royal Society Mr Evelyn inspects the "wonderful horn of a fish".
1665, Thursday Mr Evelyn describes the official victory celebrations foe the less than complete victory.
1666, Friday Mr Evelyn witnesses the launch of the new Frigate London and attends the Royal Banquet afterwards.
1688, Friday The Archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops are sent to the Tower for refusing the have the Declaration for Liberty of Conscience read in their dioceses.
1688, Friday Mr Evelyn in amongst the crowds watching the bishops on their way to the Tower.
1758, Thursday Optician John Dolland, having created achromatic lenses, reported this to the Royal Society.
1803, Wednesday One Robert Smith was executed before Newgate for robbing Coachmen on the Highway.
1831, Wednesday Death of the English actress Sarah Siddons.
1832, Friday Birth of the English engineer Sir Charles Tilston Bright.
1865, Thursday Death of the English architect Joseph Paxton.
1882, Thursday Death of the Scottish engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell.
1889, Saturday Death of the English poet, Londoner Gerard Manley Hopkins.
1906, Friday Birth of the English clarinetist and teacher Reginald Kell.
1909, Tuesday London publishers accused Mark Twain of plagiarizing Shakespeare.
1916, Thursday Birth of the English molecular biologist, Londoner Francis Crick (Nobel 1962).
1919, Sunday Britain completed largest plane to date, a triplane which carried 50 people and 4 tons of explosives.
1923, Friday The House of Commons equalised the legal terms of divorce for men and women.
1926, Tuesday Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba gave her farewell performance at Covent Garden.
1932, Wednesday Death of the English Statesman Lord Brentford (William Joynson-Hicks).
1934, Friday Oswald Mosley addressed a mass meeting of the British Union of Fascists at Olympia.
1939, Thursday George VI became the first British monarch to visit the USA.
1946, Saturday In London, Britain and the U.S. agreed in principle to an 11-state German federation.
1951, Friday In London, a telegram from missing diplomats Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean says they are taking a long Mediterranean holiday.
1963, Saturday Dr Stephen Ward was found guilty of living off the immoral earnings of Christine Keeler.
1971, Tuesday British Rail approved plans to develop the ill-fated and ultimately aborted high-speed advanced passenger train.
1974, Saturday In London, more than 3,000 people marched behind the coffin of Michael Gaughan, the Irish Nationalist who had died on hunger strike.
1977, Wednesday Commonwealth leaders, meeting in London, issued a warning to southern African whites to change or face more bloodshed.
1979, Friday Death of the royal dressmaker Norman Hartnell.
1988, Wednesday Death of the English broadcaster Russell Harty.
1990, Friday Animal rights activists admitted that they were behind a car bomb attack on a Salisbury vet.
1999, Tuesday Former cabinet minister Jonathan Aitken was jailed for 18 months for perjury and perverting the course of justice.

9th

1549, Sunday Whit Sunday, the Act of Uniformity and Archbishop Cranmer's First Book of Prayer went into effect.
1662, Monday Mr Evelyn tours Hampton Court Palace.
1666, Saturday Mr Pepys arrives back in London and strolls in St James's Park with the King.
1681, Thursday Death of the English astrologer William Lilly.
1686, Wednesday Mr Evelyn reports on the uncertain times and continued religious persecution.
1731, Wednesday Japhet Cook was pilloried and mutilated at Charing Cross for forgery.
1757, Thursday A performance of Handel's Acis and Galatea at Ranelagh House for the benefit of the Marine society.
1788, Monday English botanist Joseph Banks founded the Africa Association for arousing interest in exploration and trade.
1836, Thursday Birth of the English physician, Londoner Elizabeth Garrett Anderson.
1840, Tuesday The first occasion of a concert called a recital was a solo performance by Franz Liszt at the Hanover Square Rooms in London.
1875, Wednesday Birth of the English physiologist, Londoner Sir Henry Dale (Nobel 1936).
1904, Thursday First concert performance by The London Symphony Orchestra with Hans Richter conducting.
1917, Friday The American General Pershing arrived in London en route to the French Front.
1921, Thursday In London The Irish Self Determination League arranged an International Conference of Representatives of the Irish Race.
1927, Thursday George V and Queen Mary attend a concert given by violinist Fritz Kreisler.
1932, Thursday The Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald, announced the formation of the British Film Institute.
1948, Wednesday The Labour government proposed to maintain hanging as punishment for certain types of crime, including the killing of a policeman.
1960, Thursday It was announced that one of Britain's oldest quality cars, the Armstrong Siddeley, was to go out of production.
1964, Tuesday Death of Maxwell William Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook, Canadian-born politician and newspaper proprietor.
1975, Tuesday The proceedings of the House of Commons were broadcast live on radio for the first time..
1976, Wednesday Death of the English actress Sybil Thorndike.
1976, Wednesday Metropolitan Police Commissioner Robert Mark acknowledges that the London police force has poor relations with black youths.
1980, Monday Labour politician Roy Jenkins ave the first hint that he planned to form a new center-left party.
1981, Tuesday King Khaled of Saudi Arabia arrived on a state visit.
1982, Wednesday The 20p coin went into circulation.
1995, Friday British Medical Practitioners threaten industrial action over their demands to ban night visits.

10th

1540, Thursday Thomas Cromwell was arrested at a meeting of the Council.
1613, Thursday Mr Chamberlain discusses the unusual grounds being cited for the divorce of Essex and Frances Howard.
1652, Thursday Abraham Colfe re-founded the Grammar School at Lewisham which still bears his name today.
1660, Sunday Mr Pepys enjoys a walk with his wife in Lincoln Inns Fields.
1662, Tuesday Mr Evelyn presents his History of Chalcography to the Royal Society.
1684, Tuesday The "Battle of Red Lion Square", a violent protest at a new development scheme in Holborn.
1688, Sunday Birth of James Francis Edward Stuart, the "Old Pretender".
1688, Sunday Mr Evelyn hears the guns at the Tower greet the birth of the Prince of Wales.
1706, Monday Birth of the English optician, Londoner John Dollond.
1710, Saturday Birth of the English optician and astronomer James Short.
1731, Saturday The gentleman's Magazine reported the pillorying of Japhet Cook and that Lord Raymond had won an action against a wharfinger for short measure of coals.
1732, Monday Handel reacts against piracy by expanding his Acis and Galatea and producing it at the Theatre Royal.
1735, Tuesday Death of the English antiquary and one-time keeper of the Bodleian Library Thomas Hearne.
1829, Wednesday The Oxford team won the first-ever Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race.
1837, Saturday The electric "Five Needle Telegraph" was patented in London by Charles Wheatstone and William Fothergill Cooke.
1868, Wednesday In the house of Commons, the Ayes and the Nays tied on 123 on a Motion to give a second reading to the Married Women's Property Bill now, and not in six months. The speaker, J Evelyn Denison, cast his vote with the Ayes and the Motion was carried.
1902, Tuesday Death of Lord Acton, advocate of British liberalism.
1904, Friday Birth of the Irish mathematician, Londoner Jack Semple.
1911, Saturday Birth of the English playwright, Londoner Terence Rattigan.
1912, Monday Viscount Haldane became the Lord Chancellor.
1913, Tuesday The inquest into the death of Emily Davison returned verdict of death by misadventure.
1921, Friday Birth of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and consort of Elizabeth II.
1921, Friday Koussevitsky conducted the first performance of Stravinsky's Symphony for Winds in London.
1930, Tuesday Trades unionists protest at the invasion of industry by women.
1944, Saturday Birth of the English lutenist Anthony Rooley.
1964, Wednesday Queen Elizabeth opened first World Book Fair.
1965, Thursday A ceremony at St Paul's Cathedral marked the 750th anniversary of Magna Carta.
1983, Friday English inventor Clive Sinclair was knighted at Buckingham Palace.
1990, Sunday A British Airways pilot survives after being partly sucked out of the cockpit at 23,000 feet above London.
1992, Wednesday A bomb blast in Victoria Street caused extensive damage.
1993, Thursday Death of the English Comedian Les Dawson.
1998, Wednesday Death of the newspaper editor Sir David English.

11th

1509, Monday Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon.
1540, Friday Birth of the English poet Barnabe Googe.
1569, Saturday The draw for the First English Lottery took place at the west door of St Paul's.
1572, Wednesday Birth of the English playwright Ben Jonson.
1597, Sunday Mr Chamberlain reports on the speculation about the destination of the great fleet being prepared by Essex and Raleigh.
1612, Thursday Mr Chamberlain reports that the King, annoyed by the constant importuning for the post of Secretary, has said that he will do the job himself.
1612, Thursday Mr Chamberlain reports on the execution of four Catholic priests for failing to obey an order of banishment.
1660, Monday Mr Pepys has a very busy day with many people and much business.
1665, Sunday Death of the English writer and diplomat Kenelm Digby.
1727, Sunday Death of George I.
1727, Sunday Accession of George II.
1731, Friday The Gentlemen's Magazine reports that a riot by the prisoners in the Fleet Prison was put down by two files of Musketeers.
1737, Saturday The Opera of the Nobility collapsed in financial ruin.
1776, Tuesday Birth of the English painter John Constable.
1847, Friday Birth of the English suffragette Millicent Garrett Fawcett.
1851, Wednesday Birth of the English novelist Mrs Humphrey Ward [Mary Augusta Arnold].
1908, Thursday The Rotherhithe Tunnel, connecting Rotherhithe with Stepney, was officially opened.
1912, Tuesday The British transport workers' union called for a nationwide strike involving 200,000 workers.
1914, Thursday It was reported that Building workers had lost 1 million in wages since they went on strike.
1917, Monday Sailors refused to take Labour delegates, including Ramsay MacDonald, to the Stockholm Peace Conference.
1920, Friday Lenin published an open letter to the workers of Britain in The Times.
1925, Thursday A Gem dealer was thrown out of an airplane in the first recorded murder in the skies.
1926, Friday The Government protested to Russia for sending funds to back the recent general strike.
1936, Friday The BBC named Leslie Mitchell as its first television announcer.
1951, Monday The Home Secretary, Herbert Morrison, admitted that the security aspects of the Burgess and Maclean defections were under investigation.
1953, Thursday The Report on the Princess Victoria ferry disaster, which killed 128 people when the ferry sailed with open cargo doors, censured the ferry's owners, the British Transport Commission.
1954, Friday Iris Murdoch's first novel Under the Net was published.
1959, Thursday The new land-sea vehicle, the Hovercraft was unveiled in London.
1961, Sunday The National newspapers the Sunday Dispatch and the Sunday Express awee merged.
1969, Wednesday A Royal commission recommended an overhaul of local government system.
1971, Friday The playwright, Londoner Terence Rattigan received a knighthood.
1981, Thursday The Queen opened the Nat West Tower, then Europe's tallest building.
1983, Saturday In the post-election Cabinet reshuffle Geoffrey Howe became Foreign Secretary and Nigel Lawson Chancellor of the Fxchequer. Francis Pym was sacked and Willie Whitelaw was raised to the peerage..
1988, Saturday Eighty thousand people celebrated Nelson Mandela's 70th birthday at Wembley Stadium.
1993, Friday Life peerages awarded to the actor and director Richard Attenborough and the violinist Yehudi Menuhin.
1996, Tuesday British Airways and American Airlines announced an alliance to create the world's largest air network.
1997, Wednesday The House of Commons voted for a total ban on handguns.

12th

1088, Monday William Rufus suppressed a revolt led by Odo of Bayeux, bishop of Rochester, who supported Robert Curthose, elder brother of Rufus.
1553, Monday Edward VI granted Bridewell Palace to the City as a detention centre for the tramp, the rogue and the dissolute woman. Edward had abandoned the palace because of the unbearable stench from the Fleet river.
1625, Saturday Mr Chamberlain reports on the imminent demise of the Earl of Oxford and the delayed arrival of the new Queen.
1627, Tuesday Charles I dissolved his second Parliament.
1660, Tuesday Mr Pepys goes to the Duke of Gloucester's with Montague, sees a fine entertainment there and dines with the pages.
1683, Tuesday The Rye House Plot, to assassinate English king Charles II and his brother James, Duke of York, was discovered.
1731, Saturday The Gentlemen's Magazine reports that James Monaghan, a Butcher, was hang'd and quarter'd at Stephen's Green Dublin for the murder of his wife. The hangman rode to Execution in a suit of flower'd fustian presented him by the Master Weavers, in contempt of foreign manufactures.
1731, Saturday The Italian composer Bononcini left London in disgrace after being discovered as a plagarist.
1759, Tuesday Death of the English poet William Collins.
1897, Sunday Birth of the English politician and Prime Minister Anthony Eden.
1907, Wednesday The House of Commons gave a Second Reading to a bill to allow women to sit on county and borough councils.
1933, Monday An International Trade conference opened in London.
1956, Tuesday Scientific research concluded that radiation harmed the descendants of those exposed.
1962, Tuesday Death of the English composer John Ireland.
1969, Thursday The House of Commons passed a Bill liberalising the divorce laws.
1980, Thursday British Steel announced the closure of its Consett works with the loss of 3,700 jobs.
1982, Friday Death of the English ballet dancer and teacher Marie Rambert.
1983, Saturday Following Mrs Thatcher's landslide victory in the General Election, Michael Foot resigned as Leader of the Labour party.
1986, Thursday The Austin-Rover motor company was renamed the Rover Group.
1991, Wednesday Five homosexual couples were married in Trafalgar Square in a Gay Rights demonstration.
1996, Wednesday Queen Elizabeth became the 5th-longest reigning English monarch, overtaking Queen Victoria's 63 years and 216 days.

13th

1660, Wednesday Mr Pepys blots a new carpet but got it out again with fair water and takes the boat to Westminster.
1665, Tuesday The Great Plague began to take hold as the official death toll reached 112.
1690, Friday Tom Kelsey an audacious young thief who robbed the tent of King William in Flanders and stabbed a Newgate turnkey was executed at Tyburn.
1909, Sunday Irish explorer Ernest Shackleton arrived back in England after his Antarctic expedition.
1913, Friday Lloyd George and other ministers were exonerated over allegations of dealing in Marconi shares.
1916, Tuesday A Six-week opera season under the direction of Sir Thomas Beecham opened at Covent Garden.
1919, Friday The issue of 4% Victory loans was announced.
1930, Friday Death of the British racing driver Henry Seagrave.
1931, Saturday Mahatma Gandhi announced that he was to live in a garret with the London poor.
1939, Tuesday The Government formed the British Overseas Airways Corporation (B.O.A.C.) to acquire both British Airways and Imperial Airways.
1944, Tuesday The first flying bomb was dropped on London.
1962, Wednesday Death of the English conductor, Londoner Eugene Goossens.
1968, Thursday A royal commission recommended that a permanent industrial relations commission be established.
1974, Thursday Prince Charles made his maiden speech in House of Lords. It was the first such royal speech in 90 years.
1985, Thursday The American Philanthropist, Paul Getty donated 50 million to the National Gallery.
1995, Tuesday The President of the Board of Trade, Michael Heseltine, ordered an official inquiry into possible Iranian arms deals by a company of which a fellow government minister was a director.
1998, Saturday Death of Reg Smythe, the creator of the cartoon character Andy Capp.

14th

1380, Thursday In the Peasants' Revolt, the rebels occupying London killed Archbishop Sudbury, the Chancellor, and Robert Hales, the Treasurer.
1623, Saturday Mr Chamberlain reports on the irritation of the King with the City, the fate of Lady Finch's son lately returned from Virginia where he had been sent to be tamed and the latest on the Spanish Marriage.
1660, Thursday Mr Pepys has another busy day but manages to visit a new alehouse in Brewer's Yard.
1662, Saturday Death of the English politician Henry Vane the younger, executed after the Restoration for his parliamentarian activities.
1720, Tuesday George I granted Handel copyright privilege for his vocal and instrumental music.
1821, Tuesday In the House of Commons, the Ayes and the Noes tied on 26 on a Motion to consider amendments to the Cattle Ill-Treatment Bill immediately, not in three months. The Speaker, Charles M Sutton cast his vote with the Ayes.
1914, Sunday The worst thunderstorm in living memory caused several deaths as four inches of rain fell in three hours.
1921, Tuesday The Secretary for the Colonies, Winston Churchill, announced that the British administration in Mesopotamia will be replaced with an Arab government.
1927, Tuesday Death of the English novelist Jerome K Jerome.
1928, Thursday Death of the British suffragette leader Emmeline Pankhurst.
1936, Sunday Death of the English author, Londoner G K Chesterton.
1938, Tuesday It was announced that Sir John Reith would to leave the BBC to become head of Imperial Airways.
1946, Friday Death of the Scottish inventor of television John Logie Baird.
1961, Wednesday The government announced the introduction of push-button controlled pedestrian crossings.
1978, Wednesday In the House of Commons the Callaghan Government narrowly won a vote of confidence.
1989, Wednesday American President Ronald Reagan received an honorary knighthood from the Queen.
1991, Friday Death of the English actress Dame Peggy Ashcroft.

Outside London

8th

1612, Monday Death of the German organist and composer Hans Leo Hassler.
1671, Thursday Birth of the Italian composer and violinist Tomaso Albinoni.
1695, Saturday Death of the Dutch physicist and astronomer Christiaan Huygens.
1724, Monday Birth of the English engineer John Smeaton.
1745, Saturday Birth of the Norwegian mathematician Caspar Wessel.
1768, Wednesday Death of the German archaeologist Johann Winckelmann.
1772, Monday Birth of the Scottish engineer Robert Stevenson.
1783, Saturday Birth of the English physiologist Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie.
1790, Tuesday Birth of the Austrian baritone Anton Forti.
1809, Thursday Death of the English-born American revolutionary Thomas Paine.
1810, Friday Birth of the German composer Robert Schumann.
1814, Wednesday Birth of the English dramatist and novelist Charles Reade.
1829, Monday Birth of the English painter John Everett Millais.
1851, Sunday Birth of the French physician and physicist Ars ne d' Arsonval.
1876, Thursday Death of the French novelist George Sand [Amandine Dudevant nee Dupin].
1903, Monday Birth of the Belgian writer Marguerite Yourcenar.
1912, Saturday First performance of Ravel's ballet Daphnis and Chloe in stage form, by Diaghilev and the Ballet Russe in Paris.
1918, Saturday Nova Aquila, the brightest nova since Kepler's nova of 1604, was discovered.
1920, Tuesday Death of the Italian physicist Augusto Righi.
1935, Saturday Death of the German mathematician Alexander von Brill.
1937, Tuesday First performance of Carl Orff's Carmina Burana in Frankfurt.
1937, Tuesday The world's largest flower bloomed in New York Botanical Garden; it was a giant Sumatran calla lilly measuring 8 1/2 feet high and 4 feet in diameter. It's distinctive fragrance, like that of a rotting corpse, drove people out of doors.
1940, Saturday The creation of element 93, neptunium (symbol Np) was announced.
1948, Tuesday Death of the Italian mathematician Giacomo Albanese.
1949, Wednesday Birth of the Polish-American pianist Emanuel Ax.
1962, Friday Death of Eug ne Freyssinet, the French civil engineer who developed pre-stressed concrete.
1975, Sunday The USSR launched the Venera 9 spacecraft to the planet Venus.
1986, Sunday Kurt Waldheim was elected as the new Austrian president.
1988, Wednesday Death of the American mathematician Roger Lyndon.
1991, Saturday Death of the Chilean pianist Claudio Arrau.

9th

1573, Tuesday Death of the Scottish politician William Maitland.
1584, Tuesday Death of Francis, Duke d'Alen on, suitor to Elizabeth I.
1597, Thursday Birth of the Dutch painter Pieter Saenredam.
1672, Sunday Birth of Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia.
1781, Saturday Birth of the English engineer George Stephenson.
1810, Saturday Birth of the German composer and conductor Otto Nicolai.
1812, Tuesday Birth of the German astronomer Gottfried Galle.
1829, Tuesday Birth of the Italian composer Gaetano Braga.
1860, Saturday First performance of Robert Schumann' Cello Concerto. The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra with soloist Ludwig Ebert posthumously commemorated the composer's 50th birthday.
1865, Friday Birth of the French composer Alberic Magnard.
1865, Friday Birth of the Danish composer Carl Nielsen.
1870, Thursday Death of the English novelist Charles Dickens.
1877, Saturday Birth of the Italian baritone Tita Ruffo.
1885, Tuesday Birth of the English mathematician John E Littlewood.
1893, Friday Birth of the American composer of musicals Cole Porter.
1902, Monday In Philadelphia, the first Automat food vending machines were opened.
1904, Thursday The House of Commons hotly debated alleged Belgian atrocities in the Congo.
1904, Thursday Birth of the English palaeontologist Wiliam Joscelyn Arkell.
1912, Sunday Birth of the English tenor Edgar Evans.
1934, Saturday The Cartoon character Donald Duck made his first appearance.
1939, Friday Birth of the Romanian soprano Ileana Cotrubas.
1949, Thursday Death of the Romanian soprano Maria Cebotari.
1951, Saturday First performance of Haydn's opera Orfeo ed Euridice at the Teatro della Pergola in Florence.
1959, Tuesday Death of the German organic Chemist Adolf Windaus (Nobel 1928).
1966, Thursday First performance of Benjamin Britten's church opera The Burning Fiery Furnace in Orford Church, Aldeburgh.
1969, Monday Death of the English mathematician Harold Davenport.
1994, Thursday Death of the Dutch mathematician Jan Tinbergen.

10th

940, Wednesday Birth of the Persian astronomer Abu'l-Wafa.
1580, Friday Death of the Portuguese poet Luis Vaz de Camoens.
1654, Saturday Death of the Italian sculptor Alessandro Algardi.
1819, Thursday Birth of the French painter Gustave Courbet.
1832, Sunday Birth of the German engineer Nikolaus August Otto.
1836, Friday Death of the French physicist Andr Amp re.
1840, Wednesday Birth of the American journalist and explorer Henry Morton Stanley.
1843, Saturday Birth of the Austrian pianist and composer Heinrich von Herzogenberg.
1854, Saturday Birth of the English newspaper editor G E Buckle.
1861, Monday Birth of the French physicist Pierre Duhem.
1865, Saturday Premiere of Wagner's Tristan und Isolde, under Hans Von Bulow in Munich.
1887, Friday Birth of the Russian mathematician Vladimir Smirnov.
1890, Tuesday American inventor Daniel Johnson received a patent for "Grass Receivers for Lawn Mowers".
1899, Saturday Death of the French composer Ernest Chausson following a bicycle accident.
1902, Tuesday The first U.S. patent for a window envelope was issued.
1903, Wednesday Death of the Italian mathematician Luigi Cremona.
1913, Tuesday Birth of the Russian composer Tikhon Khrennikov.
1915, Thursday Birth of the American novelist Saul Bellow.
1918, Monday Death of the Italian composer Arrigo Boito.
1922, Saturday Birth of the American film actress and singer Judy Garland.
1925, Wednesday Birth of the Italian conductor Bruno Bartoletti.
1934, Sunday Death of the English composer Frederick Delius.
1967, Saturday Death of the American film actor Spencer Tracey.
1968, Monday Premiere of Benjamin Britten's opera The Prodigal Son in Orford Church, Aldeburgh.
1974, Monday Death of the Czech mathematician Jaroslav H jek.
1982, Thursday Death of the German film director Rainer Werner Fassbinder.
1993, Thursday Death of the American soprano Arleen Auger.
11th

1488, Wednesday James III of Scotland was murdered and succeeded by James IV.
1847, Friday Death of the English Arctic explorer John Franklin.
1910, Saturday Birth of the French oceanographer Jacques Cousteau.
1956, Monday Death of the British painter Frank Brangwyn.
1970, Thursday Death of the Russian politician Alexander Kerensky.
1979, Monday Death of the American film actor John Wayne.
1998, Thursday Death of the English novelist Catherine Cookson.

12th

1667, Wednesday The Dutch fleet under Admiral de Ruyter burned Sheerness, sailed up the River Medway, raided Chatham dockyard, and escaped with the royal barge, the Royal Charles. This was the nadir of English naval power.
1734, Wednesday Death of the British-born French general James, Duke of Berwick.
1802, Saturday Birth of the English writer Harriet Martineau.
1819, Saturday Birth of the English novelist Charles Kingsley.
1842, Sunday Death of the English scholar Thomas Arnold, head of Rugby School.
1932, Sunday The errant Rector of Stiffkey struggled to grab the Bible from a stand-in clergyman during a service.
1980, Thursday Death of the English holiday-camp entrepreneur Billy Butlin.
1991, Wednesday Boris Yeltsin became the first ever directly elected leader of the Russian Federation.
1995, Monday Death of Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli, the brilliant but temperamental Italian concert pianist.

13th

323 BCE, Monday Death of Alexander the Great.
1231, Friday Death of San Antonio of Padua.
1574, Sunday Birth of the English poet Richard Barnfield.
1713, Saturday Death of the Italian composer Arcangelo Corelli.
1795, Sunday Birth of the English scholar Thomas Arnold, head of Rugby school.
1831, Monday Birth of the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwel.
1865, Tuesday Birth of the Irish poet William Butler Yeats.
1910, Monday Birth of Mary Whitehouse, the general secretary of the National Viewers and Listeners Association.
1911, Tuesday Premiere of Stravinsky's Petrushka in Paris.
1931, Saturday Death of the English pharmacist, drug manufacturer, and philanthropist Jesse Boot.
1952, Friday Death of the American soprano Emma Eames.
1956, Wednesday The last British troops left the Suez Canal base.
1983, Monday Pioneer 10, in space for 11 years, became first craft to leave solar system.

14th

1404, Saturday Glendower, having won control of Wales, assumed the title of Prince of Wales and held a parliament.
1645, Saturday In the Civil War, Oliver Cromwell defeated the Royalists at the Battle of Naseby.
1736, Monday Birth of the French physicist Charles Augustin Coulomb.
1809, Wednesday Birth of the British admiral Henry Keppel.
1848, Wednesday Birth of the English philosopher Bernard Bosanquet.
1883, Thursday Death of the English poet and translator Edward Fitzgerald.
1917, Thursday Forty-one people were killed in an explosion at a Lancashire arms factory.
1936, Sunday Death of the Soviet writer Maxim Gorky.
1962, Thursday The European Space Research Organisation was established at Paris.
1982, Monday The Falklands War ended when Argentine forces surrendered at Port Stanley.
1995, Wednesday Pauline Clare became the first woman to be appointed chief constable in Britain.

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