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ENGLAND
Samuel Pepys
Elizabeth I
London's Underworld
Fleet Marriages.
The Cries of London
Updated.




The parks are the lungs of London.

-- William Pitt 1808



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May Week 4
Posted on Jun 10, 2002 - 05:10 AM by Bill McCann

This page provides daily updates on past events and anniversaries during the Final week of May. The events included are those that either happened in London or had an effect, one way or another, on the lives of Londoners.</font


Daily updates on Events during the Final week


Below are the events and anniversaries for this week both about London and Londoners and Outside London.

The archive for these pages has been arranged in a series of monthly Digests. To speed up navigation, these have been further divided into four weekly instalments. These pages are all comprehensively interlinked.

Each Section has its own background page which provides additional and in-depth information about many of the events and people in the daily listings. They are intended to both amuse and inform and can be found at Gazette Briefings and Historical Anecdotes .

Links to the anniversaries and events in the other weeks of the month are given in the following table whilst links to the other months of the year can be found at the bottom of the page.

First WeekSecond WeekThird Week

London and Londoners

22nd

1455, Thursday Henry VI is captured by the Duke of York at St Alban's. This event marks the beginning of Wars of the Roses .
1471, Tuesday After his execution at the Tower the previous evening, the body of Henry VI is exhibited at St Paul's and later buried in the Lady Chapel in Chertsey Abbey.
1607, Friday First performance of Ben Jonson's The Entertainment of the King and Queen at Theobald's.
1611, Wednesday James I creates the rank of Baronet and sells it to raise cash.
1660, Tuesday Mr Pepys sees the entire fleet fire a salute to Charles II and almost blinds himself in his right eye when firing his own salute.
1661, Wednesday The Scottish Covenant is burned by the hangman in various parts of London.
1661, Wednesday Mr Evelyn visits the Royal Society where they discuss various poisons.
1685, Friday Mr Evelyn describes the state opening of Parliament and afterwards sees Titus Oates whipped through the streets.
1746, Thursday Death of the Irish playwright Thomas Southerne.
1822, Wednesday Birth of Henry Wylde, the English conductor and founder of London Academy of Music.
1849, Tuesday Birth of the English architect, Londoner Aston Webb.
1897, Saturday The Blackwall Tunnel under the Thames was officially opened.
1921, Sunday Birth of the English trumpeter Humphrey Lyttleton.
1923, Tuesday Stanley Baldwin formed a Conservative ministry, with Neville Chamberlain as Chancellor of Exchequer.
1924, Thursday The Lords discuss a proposal to build a bridge across the Thames by St Paul's Cathedral.
1925, Friday Birth of the British clarinetist Thea King.
1925, Friday Death of the British soldier John French, Earl of Ypres.
1934, Tuesday The Marconi and EMI companies together to form a new television company.
1935, Wednesday It was announced that Britain would triple her air force by 1938.
1936, Friday The Colonial Secretary James Thomas resigned for allegedly leaking advance details of the Budget.
1937, Saturday In London, Leon Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed was published for the first time in English.
1950, Monday First performance of Richard Strauss' Four Last Songs, in London.
1962, Tuesday In London, A conference proposed the formation of a new federation of West Indian islands.
1972, Monday Death of the Irish poet Cecil Day Lewis.
1981, Friday At the Old Bailey, Peter Sutcliffe was convicted of the Yorkshire Ripper murders.

23rd

1275, Thursday Edward I orders an end the persecution of French Jews.
1533, Friday Cranmer's court, held in the Blackfriars priory, divorced Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon.
1622, Thursday Publication of the Weekly Newes from Italy, etc.. This was first news book to carry date of publication on its title page. It was published by Nicholas Bourne and Thomas Archer.
1660, Thursday Mr Pepys describes the arrival of Charles II on board ship and they weigh anchor for England in glorious weather.
1701, Friday, Captain Kidd is hanged at Execution Dock, Wapping.

1732, Tuesday First performance Handel's arrangement of Lucio Papirio, at the King's Theatre, Haymarket.
1751, Thursday Farewell benefit concert by and for the great Italian soprano Francesca Cuzzoni at Covent Garden.
1799, Thursday Birth of the English poet and humourist, Londoner Thomas Hood.
1862, Friday Birth of the English archaeologist and diplomat David George Hogarth.
1879, Friday Birth of the English pianist, Londoner Harold Samuel.
1892, Monday The Morning Leader was founded. It was later amalgamated with the Daily News.
1905, Tuesday Shaw's Man and Superman opened at the Court Theatre.
1910, Monday George V made his first address to the Empire.
1914, Saturday The British India Steamship Co. and the Peninsular and Oriental Steamship Co. amalgamated.
1915, Sunday In a Cabinet reshuffle, Lloyd George becomes Minister of War and Balfour replaced Winston Churchill at the Admiralty.
1916, Tuesday Asquith asked for a new war loan of 300 million, making a total war credit of 2,382 million.
1925, Saturday George V laid the foundation stone of the new Lloyd's Insurance building in Leadenhall Street.
1933, Tuesday Birth of the English film and television performer, Londoner Joan Collins.
1939, Tuesday Parliament approved an the establishment of an independent Palestine State in ten years with power divided between Arabs and Jews.
1957, Tuesday In London, the Church of England announced that remarried divorcees can take the sacraments, if a bishop permits.

24th

1357, Wednesday The Black Prince entered London in Triumph.
1382, Saturday The second Earthquake in four days hits London.
1530, Tuesday A list of heretical books was drawn up in London and Tyndale's Bible was burnt.
1540, Monday Birth of William Gilbert, English physician and pioneer researcher into magnetism.
1543, Thursday Birth of the English composer William Byrd.
1612, Sunday Death of the English statesman Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury.
1617, Saturday Mr Chamberlain tells the sad tale of Lady Lucy, the King's progress in Scotland and of the Queen's attempt to become Regent in his absence.
1640, Sunday Birth of the English chemist and physiologist John Mayow.
1660, Thursday Mr Pepys dresses in all his finery, entertains mightily in his cabin and spies land just before nightfall.
1685, Sunday Mr Evelyn reports on an extended drought and a plague of caterpillars.
1725, Monday The English criminal, Jonathan Wild, was hanged.
1726, Tuesday Voltaire arrived in London on his liberation from the Bastille.
1738, Wednesday Birth of George William Frederick, later George III.
1759, Thursday A concert at the Foundling Hospital in grateful memory of George Frederick Handel, Esq.
1794, Saturday Birth of the English scientist William Whewell.
1819, Monday Birth of Queen Victoria.
1855, Thursday Birth of the English pioneering anthropologist Alfred Cort Haddon.
1855, Thursday Birth of the English playwright Arthur Wing Pinero.
1862, Saturday Westminster Bridge was officially opened.
1888, Thursday Australian Soprano Nellie Melba made her London debut in Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor at Covent Garden.
1895, Friday Henry Irving is the first actor to be knighted.
1901, Friday Edward VII presented new colors to the Scots Guards.
1902, Saturday A Grand Ball was held at Crystal Palace prior to the coronation of Edward VII.
1911, Wednesday Sir Edward Elgar conducts the first performance of his Second Symphony in London.
1916, Wednesday Conscription began in Britain.
1924, Saturday Karl Marx's grandson, Jean Longuet, refused a Soviet request to move Marx's body from London to Russia.
1927, Tuesday The U.K. broke off diplomatic relations with the U.S.S.R., claiming that the Soviets had plotted to foster a Communist revolt in Britain.
1928, Thursday Piccadilly Circus underground station is to get 11 escalators, the largest number at any station in the world.
1928, Thursday Birth of the English Comedian Stanley Baxter.
1947, Sunday Birth of Luke Rittner, Chief executive of the Royal Academy of Dancing.
1960, Tuesday Birth of the English conductor Paul McCreesh.
1965, Monday Britain adopted the metric system.
1973, Thursday Leader of the House of Lords Lord Jellicoe resigned in growing sex scandal.
1987, Sunday Death of the English actress Hermione Gingold.
1994, Tuesday Death of the English poet and novelist John Wain.
1995, Wednesday Death of the British politician and former Prime Minister Harold Wilson.

25th

1524, Wednesday Henry VIII and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, formed a new league to support the Duke of Bourbon in a fresh attack on France.
1558, Wednesday Enfield Grammar school is founded.
1615, Thursday Mr Chamberlain reports on the great confusion in the cloth trade.
1616, Saturday Mr Chamberlain reports on the arraignment of the Earl of Somerset and his wife Frances Howard.
1657, Tuesday A New Humble Petition and Advice created a new House of Lords, and increased Cromwell's power.
1659, Wednesday Oliver Cromwell resigned as the Lord protector. The Rump Parliament re-established the Commonwealth.
1660, Friday Mr Pepys escorts the king's dog to shore and is given cause to reflect "that a King and all that belong to him are but just as others are".
1688, Friday Mr Evelyn visits Mr Pepys and others and they discuss the great confusion that hangs about the religious question.
1694, Friday The ministry in England was remodelled when William III dismissed Tories, except Godolphin and Danby, and introduced Whig Junta of Somers, Russell, Montague, and Wharton.
1715, Wednesday First performance of Handel's Amadigi in the King's Theatre, Haymarket.
1422, Wednesday James Cook set sail on his first voyage of discovery, on which he explored the Society Islands and charted the coasts of New Zealand and West Australia.
1803, Wednesday Birth of the English novelist, Londoner Edward George Bulwer Lytton.
1878, Saturday The First Performances of HMS Pinafore by Gilbert and Sullivan.
1895, Saturday Oscar Wilde was found guilty of sodomy and sentenced to two years' hard labour in Reading Gaol.
1914, Monday The House of Commons passed the Irish Home Rule bill.
1916, Thursday Lloyd George was sent to Ireland to seek peace with the Sinn Fein rebels.
1930, Sunday Death of Randall Davidson, 96th Archbishop of Canterbury.
1934, Friday The death of the English composer Gustav Holst.
1939, Thursday Death of the English astronomer Sir Frank Dyson (Astronomer Royal 1910-1933).
1953, Monday Road transport in Britain was denationalised.
1967, Thursday Enoch Powell called Britain the "sick man of Europe".
1974, Saturday Death of the English organist Arnold Grier.
1978, Thursday David Steel, the Liberal leader, announced that the Lib-Lab pact would end with the current parliamentary session.
1981, Monday Death of the English actor, Londoner, Jack Warner [Horace John Waters].
1984, Friday 4.4 billion were wiped off share prices on the London Stock Exchange.
1990, Friday Mrs Thatcher called for a giant international effort against global warming.

26th

604, Tuesday Death of St Augustine, first Archbishop of Canterbury.
1199, Wednesday King John arrived in London to prepare for his first coronation.
1520, Sunday Holy Roman Emperor Charles V visited England. Bridewell Palace was built for the occasion.
1614, Thursday Mr Chamberlain reports on a fierce debate in parliament.
1660, Saturday Mr Pepys misses the departed company, plays a desultory game of nine-pins and is cheered in the evening by a gift of 30.
1665, Friday Mr Evelyn negotiates with the Dutch Ambassador for the exchange of prisoners of war.
1689, Sunday Birth of the English writer, Londoner Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.
1703, Wednesday Death of Samuel Pepys, the London diarist at a friend's country house in Clapham.
1798, Saturday Income Tax was first introduced in Britain It applied to incomes over 200.
1826, Friday Birth of the English astronomer, Londoner Richard Christopher Carrington.
1846, Tuesday Robert Peel's administration repealed the Corn Laws (royal assent given 26 June).
1868, Tuesday The last public execution before the gates of Newgate is of the Irishman Michael Barrett.
1893, Friday Birth of the English composer and conductor, Londoner Sir Eugene Goosens.
1915, Wednesday H.H. Asquith formed his coalition government.
1921, Thursday Lloyd George invited Eamon de Valera and Sir James Craig to talks in London to discuss Home Rule for Ireland.
1942, Tuesday In London, Great Britain and U.S.S.R. signed 20-year mutual aid treaty.
1948, Wednesday Twelve extra clothing coupons per person were made available from today until the end of September.
1950, Friday War-time Petrol rationing was ended in Britain.
1955, Thursday The Conservative Party won the General Election.
1958, Monday Birth of the English composer Howard Goodall.
1992, Tuesday The Major government abolished visa requirements for Polish nationals.

27th

1199, Thursday Coronation of King John
1541, Friday The Execution of Margaret Countess of Salisbury.
1601, Wednesday Mr Chamberlain reports that Sir Henry Neville is still in the Tower for his part in the Essex rebellion and records the loss of a treasure ship to the Spanish.
1612, Wednesday Mr Chamberlain reports on the death of Sir Robert Cecil.
1620, Saturday Mr Chamberlain reports on the disgrace of losing East Indiamen to the Dutch, the difficulties in finding a new Governor for Virginia, the committal of Lord North to the Fleet and the beginning of Thomas Lake's comeback.
1660, Sunday Mr Pepys sees his Lord invested as a Knight of the Garter, looks over his new song book, spoils his lobster and signs merry till late at night.
1679, Tuesday The Act of Habaeus Corpus was passed by Parliament.
1749, Saturday Handel conducted a benefit concert for the Foundling Hospital to which the King contributed 2,000 and which included the specially composed Foundling Anthem.
1922, Saturday Birth of the English film actor, Londoner Christopher Lee.
1938, Friday Birth of the English soprano Elizabeth Harwood.
1948, Thursday MPs voted against an enquiry into the Nenni goodwill telegram from Labour MPs to Italian Communists.
1953, Wednesday Birth of the English conductor James Wood.
1976, Thursday The House of Commons was suspended in disorder after the Speaker supported the government after a tied vote on the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Bill.
1993, Thursday In London, Queen Elizabeth received President Mary Robinson of Ireland in the first meeting between the British and Irish heads of state since 1937.
2005, Friday Big Ben, the bell that accompanies one of the most reliable timepieces in the world, was silenced as the clock stopped for more than an hour and a half. The Palace of Westminster s 145-year-old clock stopped at 10.07pm, before its hesitating minute-hand crept around for another 13 minutes before stalling again. According to the large dial, the time remained at 10.20pm for 90 minutes before the hands were reset. But engineers set it an hour late at 10.50pm, as opposed to the correct time, ten minutes to midnight.

28th

1089, Monday Death of Lanfranc, the 34th Archbishop of Canterbury.
1533, Wednesday Cranmer declared Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn to be married.
1539, Wednesday Royal assent was given to an act (the Six Articles of Religion) abolishing diversity of opinions in England, after Henry VIII personally intervened in the Lords' debate to argue with the Reforming bishops.
1552, Saturday Covent Garden was granted to John Russell, Earl of Bedford.
1660, Monday Mr Pepys loses four shillings a nine-pins and has a bad dream.
1672, Tuesday Death of the English admiral Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich and patron to Samuel Pepys.
1710, Sunday Birth of the English composer, Londoner Thomas Arne.
1742, Friday Opening of the first indoor swimming pool.
1759, Monday The birth of the English statesman, Londoner William Pitt the Younger
1779, Friday Death of the English cabinet-maker Thomas Chippendale.
1862, Wednesday Death of the English historian, Londoner Henry Thomas Buckle.
1878, Tuesday Death of the English statesman Lord John Russell.
1900, Monday A Solar eclipse was observed in the Northern hemisphere.
1900, Monday Death of the English musicologist, Londoner Sir George Grove.
1908, Thursday Birth of the English novelist, Londoner Ian Fleming.
1911, Sunday Death of Sir Charles Alfred Elliott, former governor of Bengal.
1925, Thursday The Home Secretary announced that all known subversives would be barred from entering the country.
1935, Tuesday Birth of the English bass Richard Van Allen.
1936, Thursday The date of the coronation of Edward VIII's was announced as May 12, 1937.
1937, Friday Neville Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister and promises peace in Europe.
1939, Sunday A bill is introduced to parliament to make voting in elections compulsory.
1959, Thursday Britain announced the removal of controls on imports of many consumer goods from the dollar area, with increased import quotas for other goods.
1964, Thursday Death of the English choral director and administrator John Finley Williamson.
1990, Monday Death of the English geologist Ralph A. Bagnold.

29th

1585, Saturday Westminster became a municipality.
1630, Saturday The birth of Charles II. Mr Evelyn remembers the universal jubilee that attended the good news
1660, Tuesday Mr Evelyn witnesses the celebrations that attend the triumphant entry of Charles II into London while Mr Pepys has a pleasant day touring the country-side around Deal and witnesses the bonfires and cannonades in celebration of the King's birthday
1829, Friday Death of the English scientist Humphry Davy, who invented a safety lamp for miners.
1874, Friday Birth of the English novelist and critic, Londoner G K Chesterton.
1882, Monday Birth of the English mathematician Harry Bateman.
1902, Thursday Lord Rosebery opened the London School of Economics and Political Science.
1903, Friday Birth of the English-born film actor and comedian, Londoner Bob Hope.
1911, Monday The death of W S Gilbert. See The First Performances of HMS Pinafore.
1912, Wednesday 100,000 British dock workers went on strike for a minimum wage.
1917, Tuesday Death of the Scottish mathematician William Niven.
1924, Thursday A Bill to reduce women's voting age to 21 years was placed before the House of Commons.
1925, Friday Alan Cobham landed the prototype de Havilland D.H.60 Moth after flying 1,000 miles to Zurich and back in a single day.
1927, Sunday Charles Lindbergh, hero of the first nonstop Atlantic crossing, arrived at Croydon airport from Paris in the Spirit of St Louis. Excited crowds broke through the barriers and swarmed over the runway.
1929, Wednesday Birth of the English theoretical physicist Peter Higgs.
1930, Thursday The BBC formed its own permanent symphony orchestra under the directorship of Adrian Boult.
1948, Saturday Birth of the English composer, Londoner Michael Berkeley.
1955, Sunday Sixty-five thousand railway workers went on strike in a dispute over pay differentials.
1993, Saturday Death of the English entrepreneur and film producer Sidney Bernstein.

30th

1536, Tuesday Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour. See also The Execution of Margaret Countess of Salisbury.
1593, Wednesday Murder of Christopher Marlowe at Deptford.
1623, Friday Mr Chamberlain reports on the preparations to receive the Spanish Infanta and the doubts about the entire proceeding.
1648, Tuesday Mr Evelyn reports on a rising in Kent.
1649, Wednesday Mr Evelyn witnesses the declaration of the Commonwealth and the tearing down of the statues of Charles I.
1660, Wednesday Mr Pepys breakfasts on "mackerel newly catched", has a bit of a health scare but cheers ups when he does his accounts.
1662, Friday Mr Evelyn watches the arrival of the Queen, Catherine of Braganza, in London. Portuguese ladies or fashions are not to his taste.
1744, Wednesday Death of Alexander Pope, poet and satirist. See Bathing in London.
1757, Monday Birth of the British statesman Henry Addington, Viscount Sidmouth.
1842, Monday A second attempt was made to assassinate Queen Victoria.
1862, Friday Birth of the English Tenor, Londoner Courtice Pounds.
1864, Monday Death of the Swiss mechanic and inventor Johann Georg Bodmer.
1898, Monday The English Chemist Morris William Travers discovered the element krypton.
1899, Tuesday First public performance of music by Frederick Delius at a concert at St. James Hall.
1901, Thursday Stanford's opera Much Ado 'bout Nothing premieres at Covent Garden.
1904, Monday Three thousand London cabmen go on strike.
1913, Friday A peace treaty between Turkey and the Balkan states was signed in London.
1919, Friday Birth of the British ghost-story writer, Londoner R. Chetwynd-Hayes.
1929, Thursday The Labour Party won the general election with 287 seats.
1946, Thursday Bread rationing began in Britain.
1948, Sunday The British Citizenship Act conferred the status of British subjects on all Commonwealth citizens.
1967, Tuesday Death of the English film actor, Londoner Claude Rains.
1980, Friday The Thatcher Government announced a ban on insider dealing.

31st

1443, Friday Birth of Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII.
1619, Monday Mr Chamberlain reports on the resistance of the Lord Mayor to the proposed marriage of his young daughter.
1621, Monday Francis Bacon was committed to the Tower.
1660, Thursday Mr Pepys receives a gift of a pair of light blue silk stockings which pleases him but he misses his wife.
1832, Thursday Death of the English naval engineer Sir Samuel Bentham.
1837, Wednesday Death of Joseph Grimaldi.
1841, Monday Death of the English mathematician George Green.
1859, Tuesday Big Ben went into service for the first time.
1872, Friday Birth of the English illustrator, Londoner William Heath Robinson.
1880, Monday The St James Gazette was launched. It merged with the Evening Standard in 1905.
1902, Saturday The Peace of Vereeniging ended the Boer War.
1908, Sunday Death of the English antiquary Sir John Evans.
1910, Tuesday Theodore Roosevelt received the freedom of the City of London.
1914, Sunday Proposals for a new road bridge crossing the Thames at Charing Cross were published.
1922, Wednesday Birth of the English actor, Londoner Denholm Elliot.
1927, Tuesday George V received Charles Lindbergh at Buckingham Palace.
1929, Friday The General Election produced a hung parliament with Labour as the largest party.
1938, Tuesday The BBC broadcast the first television game show, Spelling Bee.
1955, Tuesday A State of Emergency was declared because of a railway strike.
1992, Sunday The unveiling, by the Queen Mother, of a statue of Marshal of the RAF Sir Arthur Bomber Harris was marred by demonstrators.

Outside London

22nd

853, Monday Olaf the White, son of the King of Norway, received the submission of Vikings and Danes in Ireland and made Dublin his capital.
1498, Tuesday A death sentence was pronounced on Savonarola for attempting to seek the deposition of Pope Alexander VI.
1783, Thursday Birth of the English electrical engineer William Sturgeon.
1813, Saturday Birth of the German composer Richard Wagner.
1813, Saturday Rossini's L'Italiana in Algieri premieres at the Teatre San Benedetto in Venice.
1815, Monday Death of the Scottish mathematician William Spence.
1848, Monday Birth of the German mathematician Hermann Schubert.
1852, Saturday Birth of the French violinist Emile Sauret.
1856, Thursday Death of the French historian Augustin Thierry.
1859, Sunday Birth of the British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
1865, Monday Birth of the Catalan conductor and teacher Enrique Morera.
1865, Monday Birth of the English mathematician Alfred Dixon.
1868, Friday Death of the German mathematician Julius Pl cker.
1870, Sunday Birth of the French composer Jean Cras.
1873, Thursday Birth of the Estonian composer Rudolf Tobias.
1874, Friday First performance of Verdi's Requiem, conducted by the composer in Milan.
1892, Sunday Dr. Washington Sheffield, an American dentist, invented the collapsible metal toothpaste tube.
1899, Monday Plain Dealer reporter Charles Shanks first used the French word automobile in a series of articles he wrote about a road trip with car magnate Alexander Winton.
1900, Tuesday Birth of the Flemish coloratura soprano Vina Bovy.
1900, Tuesday A U.S. patent was granted to Edwin S. Votey for the first practical pneumatic piano attachment, or pianola.
1900, Tuesday The first automatic computing scale was patented in Ohio.
1903, Friday Birth of the French mathematician Yves Rocard.
1907, Wednesday Birth of Herge [Georges Remy] Belgian creator of Tintin.
1907, Wednesday Birth of the English actor Laurence Olivier.
1908, Friday The Wright brothers register a flying machine at the U.S. Patent Office.
1911, Monday First performance of Debussy's Martyre de Saint-Sebastien at the Paris Opera.
1912, Wednesday Birth of the American chemist Herbert Charles Brown (Nobel 1979).
1915, Saturday 122 passengers died in Britain's worst ever train crash, near Gretna Green in Scotland.
1920, Saturday Birth of the Austrian astronomer Thomas Gold.
1924, Thursday First performance of Igor Stravinsky's Piano Concerto at Koussevitzky Concert, in Paris.
1925, Friday Birth of the American tenor James King.
1927, Sunday Birth of the Hungarian chemist George A. Olah (Nobel 1994).
1938, Sunday Birth of the American film actor Richard Benjamin.
1946, Wednesday Birth of the Irish footballer George Best.
1949, Sunday Death of the German composer Hans Pfitzner.
1972, Monday Ceylon became the Republic of Sri Lanka.
1983, Sunday Death of the Belgian cytologist Albert Claude (Nobel 1974).
1984, Tuesday The head of security at the British Embassy was expelled from Moscow.
1989, Monday The first successful transfer of cells containing foreign genes into a human being was performed.
1991, Wednesday Rajiv Gandhi, the Indian president, was assassinated.
1995, Monday Astronomers found two new moons of Saturn in photos taken by the Hubble Space Telescope.
1997, Thursday Death of the American biologist Alfred Day Hershey (Nobel 1969).

23rd

878, Friday Alfred defeated the Danes at Edington. Under the peace of Wedmore, their leader, Guthrum, was baptized as a Christian.
1169, Friday A band of Norman knights from Wales, led by Strongbow, land in Ireland to help Diarmait MacMurrogh in his dynastic struggles.
1335, Tuesday Death of Richard of Wallingford, Abbot of St Albans.
1335, Tuesday Birth of the Mongol leader Tamerlane the Great.
1430, Tuesday Burgundian troops captured Joan of Arc and delivered her to the English.
1568, Sunday William of Orange with German mercenaries defeated a Spanish force under Count Aremberg at Heiligerlee. This was the beginning of the Revolt of the Netherlands against Spanish rule.
1606, Friday Birth of the Spanish mathematician Juan Caramuel.
1617, Friday Birth of the English antiquarian Elias Ashmole.
1618, Saturday The Defenestration of Prague. The Austrian Regents, Martinitz and Slawata, were overthrown (and thrown out of the window) by Bohemian rebels. Traditionally the beginning of the Thirty Years' War.
1707, Friday Birth of the Swedish botanist Carl von Linn (Linnaeus).
1718, Friday Birth of the Scottish anatomist and obstetrician William Hunter.
1733, Wednesday Birth of the Austrian physician Friedrich Mesmer.
1753, Wednesday Birth of the Italian composer and violinist Jean Baptista Viotti.
1785, Monday A letter from Benjamin Franklin, in Paris, described his invention of bifocal glasses.
1794, Friday Birth of the Czech composer and pianist Isaak Ignaz Moscheles.
1814, Monday First performance, in Vienna, of Beethoven's Opera Fidelio in it's present form.
1848, Tuesday Birth of the German aeronautical pioneer Otto Lilienthal.
1857, Saturday Death of the French mathematician Augustin-Louis Cauchy.
1871, Tuesday Birth of the Norwegian composer Sigurd Lie.
1883, Monday Birth of the American film star Douglas Fairbanks Snr.
1885, Saturday Death of the Danish mathematician Thomas Clausen.
1886, Sunday Death of the German historian Leopold von Ranke.
1887, Monday Birth of the Norwegian mathematician Thoralf Skolem.
1889, Thursday Death of the French mathematician George-Henri Halphen.
1893, Tuesday Birth of the Polish soprano Rosa Raisa.
1895, Thursday Death of the German mathematician Franz Neumann.
1901, Thursday Birth of the English composer Edmund Rubbra.
1906, Wednesday Death of the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen.
1908, Saturday Birth of the American physicist John Bardeen (Nobel 1958 and 1972).
1910, Monday Birth of the English architect Hugh Casson.
1912, Thursday Birth of the French pianist Jean Francaix.
1914, Saturday Birth of the Latvian mathematician Lipman Bers.
1923, Wednesday Birth of the Spanish pianist Alicia de Larrocha.
1923, Wednesday Sabena, Belgium's national airline, was founded.
1924, Friday At 31 knots the Cunard liner Mauretania attained the fastest speed of any mercantile ship in the world.
1926, Sunday Death of the German composer Hans Koessler.
1928, Wednesday Birth of the British mathematician Ioan James.
1928, Wednesday Birth of the English actor Nigel Davenport.
1945, Wednesday Heinrich Himmler committed suicide.
1947, Friday Attlee's Cabinet agreed to the partition of India.
1951, Wednesday Birth of the Soviet chess champion Anatoly Karpov.
1954, Sunday Prime Minister Winston Churchill threatened to pull out of the Geneva conference if no agreement was reached about Indochina's future within ten days.
1960, Monday Death of Georges Claude, the French engineer, chemist, and inventor of the neon light.
1967, Tuesday The prototype Hawker Siddeley Nimrod maritime reconnaissance aircraft, a development of the D.H. Comet 4, began its flight trials.
1971, Saturday Scottish driver Jackie Stewart won the Monaco Grand Prix.

24th

1153, Monday Malcolm IV succeeded to the Scottish throne.
1245, Wednesday Birth of King Philip III of France.
1494, Friday Birth of the Italian painter Jocopo da Pontormo.
1543, Thursday Death of the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.
1686, Monday Birth of the German physicist and maker of scientific instruments Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit.
1693, Wednesday Birth of the Austrian sculptor Georg Raphael Donner.
1726, Tuesday The first Circulating Library was opened by Allan Ramsay in Edinburgh.
1743, Tuesday Birth of the French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat.
1781, Thursday Birth of the French horn player and composer Louis-Francois Dauprat.
1803, Tuesday Birth of the French scientist Prince Charles-Lucien Bonaparte.
1810, Thursday First performance of Beethoven's Egmont Overture, in Vienna.
1831, Tuesday Birth of the pianist Richard Hoffman, teacher and accompanist to Jenny Lind.
1836, Tuesday Birth of the social reformer and industrialist Joseph Rowntree.
1843, Wednesday Death of the French mathematician Sylvestre Lacroix.
1846, Sunday Birth of the Danish palaeontologist Sophus Otto M ller.
1859, Tuesday First performance of Gounod's Ave Maria, by Madame Caroline Miolan-Carvalho in Paris.
1883, Thursday Brooklyn Bridge opened over the East River, New York City.
1886, Monday Birth of the French conductor and composer conductor Paul Paray.
1896, Sunday Birth of the Danish composer and conductor Johan Hye-Knudsen.
1899, Wednesday Massenet's Cendrillon premieres in Paris.
1903, Sunday Birth of the Polish mathematician Wladyslaw Roman Orlicz.
1905, Wednesday Birth of the Russian novelist Mikhail A. Sholokhov.
1906, Thursday First performance of Delius' Sea Drift in Essen, Germany.
1907, Friday Two Englishmen broke into the U.S. Consulate in Winnipeg and tore down the U.S. flag after it was raised above the Union Jack on Victoria Day.
1912, Friday Birth of the New Zealand soprano Dame Joan Hammond.
1928, Thursday Birth of the Irish writer William Trevor [William Trevor Cox].
1930, Saturday Amy Johnson finished her solo flight from London to Australia in 19.5 days.
1935, Friday The first spectrophotometer was sold by General Electric Co.
1939, Thursday The Imperial Airways Short seaplane Cabot was successfully refuelled in mid-air by a Handley Page bomber modified to carry 891 gallons of aviation fuel.
1940, Friday Birth of the Russian poet Joseph Brodsky.
1941, Saturday The British battleship HMS Hood was sunk by the Bismarck off Greenland.
1948, Monday The USSR stopped road and rail traffic between Berlin and the West, forcing Western powers to organize airlifts.
1950, Wednesday Death of the British commander, Field Marshal Lord Archibald Wavell.
1952, Saturday Birth of the English mezzo-soprano Fiona Kimm.
1958, Saturday The nuclear reactor at Dounreay began working.
1959, Sunday Britain and the U.S.S.R. signed a five-year trade pact.
1960, Tuesday The first successful American surveillance satellite, Midas II, was launched from Cape Canaveral.
1973, Tuesday Concord aircraft from Britain & France flew to Washington D.C for the first time.
1986, Saturday Margaret Thatcher is the first British Prime Minister to visit Israel.
1995, Wednesday Northern Ireland Secretary Patrick Mayhew met with Sinn Fein leader Gerry Adams during an investment conference in Washington, DC.

25th

1508, Thursday Birth of the Belgian mathematician Regnier Gemma Frisius.
1521, Saturday The Edict of Worms declared Martin Luther an outlaw.
1616, Saturday Birth of the Italian painter Carlo Dolci.
1675, Tuesday Death of the French painter Gaspard Poussin.
1713, Monday Birth of John Stuart, Earl of Bute, the first Scottish person to form a British Ministry.
1828, Sunday Birth of the Latvian mathematician Karl Peterson.
1863, Monday Birth of the French composer Camille Erlanger.
1865, Thursday Birth of the Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman (Nobel 1902).
1869, Tuesday The Vienna State Opera House opened with Mozart's Don Giovanni.
1870, Wednesday First performance of Delibes' ballet Coppelia in Paris.
1881, Wednesday Birth of the Hungarian composer B la Bart k.
1889, Saturday Birth of the Russian pioneer aircraft designer Igor Sikorsky.
1898, Wednesday Birth of the Russian composer and pianist Mischa Levitski.
1900, Friday Death of the Italian baritone Giuseppe del Puente.
1901, Saturday Birth of the German physical chemist Carl Wagner.
1910, Wednesday First performance of Debussy's piano Preludes with Voiles, in Paris with the composer at the piano.
1917, Friday Birth of the Irish conductor and broadcaster John Havelock Nelson.
1921, Thursday Birth of the German physicist Jack Steinberger (Nobel 1988).
1923, Friday Death of the German chemist Hans Goldschmidt.
1925, Monday Birth of the American coloratura soprano Beverly Sills, [Belle Miriam "Bubbles" Silverman].
1927, Wednesday Birth of the American thriller writer Robert Ludlum.
1939, Thursday Birth of the English actor Ian McKellen.
1994, Wednesday The 46th meeting of the International Whaling Commission voted to establish a whale sanctuary in Antarctic waters which will protect 80% of the world's surviving whales.

26th

735, Thursday Death of Bede, the Anglo-Saxon historian.
1391, Friday Birth of the French poet Charles of Orl ans.
1538, Sunday Jean Calvin was expelled from Geneva and settled in Strasbourg.
1595, Monday Death of the Italian priest, founder of the Oratory St Philip Neri.
1601, Tuesday Death of the Italian composer Costanzo Porta.
1602, Wednesday Birth of the French painter Philippe de Champaigne.
1613, Wednesday Birth of the English statesman Henry Vane the younger.
1623, Monday Birth of the English economist William Petty.
1667, Sunday Birth of the French mathematician Abraham de Moivre.
1696, Tuesday Death of the German composer Heinrich Schwemmer.
1799, Sunday Death of the Scottish jurist and pioneer anthropologist Lord James Burnett Monboddo.
1859, Thursday Birth of the English poet A E Housman.
1867, Sunday Birth of Princess Mary of Teck (Queen Mary, consort of George V).
1867, Sunday Birth of the American chemist Julius Stieglitz.
1886, Wednesday Birth of the American singer Al Jolson.
1888, Saturday Death of the Italian chemist who discovered nitroglycerin, Ascanio Sobrero.
1896, Tuesday Birth of the Russian mathematician Yurii Sokolov.
1899, Friday Birth of the Austrian historian of mathematics Otto Neugebauer.
1904, Thursday Birth of the French pianist Vlado Perlemuter.
1904, Thursday Birth of the English comedian George Formby [George Hoy Booth].
1905, Friday Death of the French banker and philanthropist Alphonse de Rothschild.
1907, Sunday Birth of the American film actor John Wayne.
1908, Tuesday Birth of the English actor Robert Morley.
1913, Monday Birth of the English actor Peter Cushing.
1914, Tuesday First performance of Stravinsky's Le Rosignol by Ballet Russe in Paris.
1917, Saturday German airplanes killed 76 civilians in bombing raids along the southeast coast of England.
1919, Monday Birth of the American poet Walt Whitman.
1922, Friday Death of the Belgian industrial chemist Ernest Solvay.
1923, Saturday Birth of the English actor Roy Dotrice.
1923, Saturday Birth of the American television and film actor James Arness.
1924, Monday Death of the Irish composer Victor Herbert.
1925, Tuesday Birth of the English actor Alec McCowen.
1938, Thursday Birth of the Canadian soprano Teresa Stratas.
1966, Thursday British Guyana became the independent nation of Guyana.
1993, Wednesday Death of the American newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer.

27th

1063, Tuesday Harold of Wessex began to conquer Wales.
1199, Thursday Pope Innocent III imposed the first direct papal taxation of Clergy.
1564, Saturday Death of the French religious reformer Jean Calvin.
1661, Monday Archibald Campbell, Marquess of Argyll, Scottish Covenanter, was executed for collaboration with the English.
1690, Tuesday Death of the Italian composer Giovanni Legrenzi.
1699, Saturday Birth of the Italian painter Giovanni Antonio Guardi.
1797, Saturday Death of the German tenor Anton Raaff.
1799, Monday Birth of the French composer Jacques Louis Halevy.
1818, Wednesday Birth of the Dutch opthmalologist Frans Cornelis Donders.
1822, Monday Birth of the Swiss-German composer Joseph Joachim Raff.
1840, Wednesday Death of the Italian violinist Niccol Paganini.
1851, Tuesday Birth of the French composer Vincent d'Indy.
1854, Saturday Birth of the German composer, pianist and teacher Paul Pabst.
1862, Tuesday Birth of the Irish mathematician John Campbell.
1867, Monday Birth of the English novelist Arnold Bennett.
1883, Sunday Birth of the German chemist Wolfgang Ostwald.
1887, Friday Birth of the Polish physical chemist Kasimir Fajans.
1888, Sunday Birth of the French composer Louis Durey.
1890, Tuesday Two U.S. patents for the first jukebox were issued.
1894, Sunday Birth of the French novelist and physician Louis Ferdinand C line.
1897, Thursday Birth of the English physicist John Cockcroft (Nobel 1951).
1901, Monday Birth of the American biochemist Conrad Arnold Elvehjem.
1906, Sunday First performance of Mahler's Sixth Symphony at Essen, with the composer conducting.
1907, Monday Birth of the German mathematician Herbert Seifert.
1910, Friday Death of the German bacteriologist Robert Koch.
1911, Saturday Birth of the American film actor Vincent Price.
1914, Wednesday Death of the English physical chemist Sir Joseph Wilson Swan.
1915, Thursday Birth of the Italian tenor Mario Del Monaco.
1915, Thursday HM Auxiliary Ship Irene exploded at Sheerness with the loss of 270 lives.
1915, Thursday Birth of the American novelist Herman Wouk.
1919, Tuesday Oil was struck at England's first inland oil well.
1920, Thursday Birth of the German violist Ernst Wallfisch.
1928, Sunday Death of the German mathematician Arthur Sch nflies.
1928, Sunday Birth of the Scottish composer Thea Musgrave.
1930, Tuesday Cellophane transparent adhesive tape was patented by Richard Drew of St. Paul, Minnesota. He assigned the rights to the 3M Company, which marketed the tape from 8 Sep 1930 under the trademark "Scotch".
1931, Wednesday Swiss physicist August Piccard and assistant Paul Kipfer reach a world record altitude of 51,775 feet in a balloon; it has a sealed cabin gondola fitted with an internal supply of oxygen.
1936, Wednesday The liner Queen Mary left on her maiden voyage to New York.
1937, Thursday Death of the American photographer Frederic Eugene Ives.
1952, Tuesday The European Defence Community Treaty was signed.
1965, Thursday Birth of the Australian tennis player Pat Cash (Wimbledon 1987).
1970, Wednesday Birth of the English actor Joseph Fiennes.
1987, Wednesday Death of the American biochemist John Howard Northrop (Nobel 1946).
1988, Friday Death of the German electrical engineer Ernst Ruska (Nobel 1986).
1989, Saturday Lord Mackay, the Lord Chancellor, was suspended from the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland.

28th

1608, Saturday First performance of Monteverdi's opera L'Ariana, and ballet Il ballo delle ingrate in Mantua.
1660, Monday The birth of George I
1676, Sunday Birth of the Italian mathematician Jacopo Riccati.
1710, Sunday Birth of the Swiss mathematician Johann Bernoulli fils.
1730, Thursday Death of the Italian composer Leonardo Vinci.
1738, Sunday Birth of the French physician Joseph Guillotine.
1779, Friday Birth of the Irish poet Thomas Moore.
1787, Monday Death of the Austrian composer Leopold Mozart.
1803, Saturday Birth of the French novelist Prosper M rim e.
1805, Tuesday Death of the Italian composer Luigi Boccherini.
1807, Thursday Death of the Swiss oceanographer and marine zoologist Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz.
1841, Friday Birth of the Italian composer, conductor and pianist Giovanni Sgambati.
1843, Sunday Death of the American lexicographer Noah Webster.
1850, Tuesday Birth of the English legal historian F W Maitland.
1883, Monday Birth of the Moravian conductor Vaclav Talich.
1883, Monday Birth of the Italian composer Riccardo Zandonai.
1886, Friday Birth of the Russian conductor Nikolai Sokoloff.
1888, Monday Birth of the French pianist Germaine Schnitzer.
1895, Tuesday Birth of the German astronomer Rudolph Minkowski.
1903, Thursday Birth of the German conductor Walter Goehr.
1904, Saturday First performance of the revised version of Puccini's Madama Butterfly at Brescia.
1911, Sunday Birth of the English actress Thora Hird.
1912, Tuesday Death of the French chemist Paul- mile Lecoq de Boisbaudran.
1912, Tuesday Birth of the German mathematician Hans Zassenhaus.
1915, Thursday Birth of the Austrian violinist Wolfgang Schneiderhan.
1923, Monday Birth of the Hungarian composer Gyorgy Ligeti.
1925, Thursday Birth of the German baritone Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau.
1932, Saturday The ijselmeer was formed in the Netherlands, by the completion of a dam which enclosed the former Zuider Zee.
1938, Saturday First performance of Paul Hindemith's opera Mathis der Mahler in Zurich.
1948, Friday Birth of the Cypriot violinist Levon Chilingirian.
1955, Saturday Sixteen Teddy Boys were arrested in Bath after a disturbance at the city's dance hall.
1959, Thursday The U.S. launched two monkeys into space as part of its test missions.
1961, Sunday The Orient Express set out on the last sector (Paris to Bucharest) of its final journey.
1971, Friday The U.S.S.R. launched Mars 3.
1980, Wednesday Death of the Finnish mathematician Rolf Nevanlinna.
1985, Tuesday The European Court of Human Rights found Britain guilty of sex discrimination in her immigration policy.
1994, Saturday The new opera house at Glyndebourne opened with a performance of Mozart's Marriage of Figaro.

29th

1218, Tuesday The Fifth Crusade landed outside Damietta in Egypt.
1453, Tuesday Mohammed II, founder of the Ottoman empire, captured Constantinople, killed Byzantine emperor Constantine XI and the finally extinguished Greek Empire. Constantinople became the Ottoman capital.
1458, Monday Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, defeated a Castilian fleet in the Channel.
1500, Friday Death of the Portuguese navigator Bartholomew Diaz de Novaes.
1546, Saturday Assassination of the Scottish politician Cardinal Beaton who had repudiated the Treaty of Greenwich with Henry VIII.
1660, Tuesday Death of the Dutch mathematician Frans van Schooten.
1698, Sunday Birth of the French sculptor Edme Bouchardon.
1716, Tuesday Birth of the French naturalist Louis Jean Marie Daubenton.
1753, Tuesday First performance of Haydn's Singspiel, Der Krumme Teufel in Vienna.
1767, Friday Birth of Philippe Lebon the French chemist who discovered Gaslight.
1781, Tuesday Birth of the French chemist Henri Braconnot.
1794, Thursday Birth of the German astronomer Johann Heinrich von M dler.
1794, Thursday Birth of the French chemist Antoine A. B. Bussy.
1801, Friday First performance of Haydn's oratorio The Seasons, in Vienna, with Beethoven in the audience.
1860, Tuesday Birth of the Spanish composer Isaac Albeniz.
1868, Friday Birth of the French-English composer Frederic d'Erlanger.
1885, Friday Birth of the German mathematician Finlay Freundlich.
1893, Monday Birth of the Bohemian mathematician Charles Loewner.
1896, Friday Death of the French geochemist Gabriel-Auguste Daubr e.
1897, Saturday Birth of the German-Bohemian composer Eric Wolfgang Korngold.
1897, Saturday Death of the German botanist Julius von Sachs.
1901, Wednesday First performance of Paderewski's only opera Manru in Dresden.
1904, Sunday In Vienna, Edward VII was made anhonorary field marshall of the Austro-Hungarian Army by Emperor Franz Josef.
1905, Monday First performance of Scriabin's Reverie and poem of ecstacy (Third Symphony) under Arthur Nikisch, in Paris.
1906, Tuesday Birth of the British novelist T H White.
1910, Sunday Death of the Russian composer Mily Balakirev.
1912, Wednesday First performance of Debussy's ballet version of Prelude a l'apres-midi d'un Faune at the Chatelet, in Paris.
1912, Wednesday Birth of the Chinese physicist Chien-Shiung Wu.
1913, Thursday The Ballet Russe gave the first performance of Stavinsky's Rite of Spring under Diaghilev, in Paris.
1915, Saturday Birth of the German conductor Karl Munchinger.
1917, Tuesday Birth of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th American president.
1919, Thursday Einstein's theories of relativity were given a practical test during a solar eclipse in the southern hemisphere when starlight was observed to bend in the sun's gravitational field.
1924, Thursday First performance of Gretchaninov's Third Symphony, in Kiev with the composer conducting.
1933, Monday Birth of the German organist, teacher and conductor Helmut Rilling.
1939, Monday Birth of the English actress Nanette Newman.
1940, Wednesday In World War II, the first British forces were evacuated from Dunkirk.
1945, Tuesday William Joyce, Lord Haw-Haw was arrested in Germany.
1948, Saturday Birth of the Scottish soprano Linda Esther Gray.
1951, Tuesday Captain Charles Blair made the first solo flight over North Pole in a single-engine plane.
1953, Friday Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay, reached the summit of Mt Everest.
1957, Wednesday Birth of the French mathematician Jean-Christophe Yoccoz.
1959, Friday Birth of the English actor Rupert Everett.
1960, Sunday Death of the Russian poet and novelist Boris Pasternak.
1982, Saturday Pope John Paul II, the first reigning Pope to visit Britain, attended an Anglican Service in Canterbury Cathedral.

30th

1423, Sunday Birth of the Austrian astronomer Georg Peurbach.
1431, Wednesday Joan of Arc was burnt as a heretic at Rouen.
1592, Tuesday The Spanish defeated an English force under Sir John Norris at Cranon, Brittany.
1640, Saturday Death of the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens.
1672, Thursday Birth of Peter the Great, tsar of Russia.
1770, Wednesday Death of the French painter Fran ois Boucher.
1778, Saturday Death of the French author and philosopher Voltaire.
1794, Friday Birth of the Czech composer, pianist and conductor Ignaz Moscheles.
1800, Friday Birth of the German mathematician Karl Feuerbach.
1814, Monday Birth of the Belgian mathematician Eug ne Catalan.
1821, Wednesday A fire hose of cotton web lined with rubber was patented in Boston.
1846, Saturday Birth of the Russian goldsmith Peter Carl Faberg .
1848, Tuesday The first U.S. patent for an ice cream freezer was issued.
1866, Wednesday Smetana's The Bartered Bride premieres at the National Opera in Prague.
1896, Saturday Birth of the American film director Howard Hawks.
1908, Saturday Birth of the American voice of Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck and many others, Mel Blanc.
1908, Saturday Birth of the Swedish astrophysicist Hannes Alfv n (Nobel 1970).
1908, Saturday Birth of the American pianist Beveridge Webster.
1909, Sunday Birth of the American clarinetist Benny Goodman.
1912, Thursday Birth of the Welsh actor Hugh Griffith [Marian Glas].
1912, Thursday Birth of the American biochemist Julius Axelrod (Nobel 1970).
1912, Thursday Death of the American aviation pioneer Wilbur Wright.
1920, Sunday Birth of the Canadian Bass-baritone George London.
1923, Wednesday Death of the French composer Camille Chevillard.
1926, Sunday Death of the Russian mathematician Vladimir Steklov.
1927, Monday Stravinsky's opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex premieres in ballet form with the composer conducting the Ballet Russe, in Paris.
1928, Wednesday Birth of the Dutch organist, harpsichordist, conductor and teacher Gustav Leonhardt.
1934, Wednesday Birth of Aleksey Arkhipovich Leonov the Soviet cosmonaut and the first man to climb out of a spacecraft in space.
1940, Thursday Birth of the American Soprano Olivia Stapp.
1942, Saturday The RAF mounted a 1000-bomber raid on Cologne.
1947, Friday Death of the American zoologist Charles Atwood Kofoid.
1952, Friday Birth of the Hungarian pianist Zoltan Kocsis.
1954, Sunday Diane Leather of Birmingham University became the first woman to run a mile in under 5 minutes.
1959, Saturday The first experimental hovercraft, the SR.N1 made its first trip at Cowes on the Isle of Wight.
1964, Saturday Death of the Hungarian physicist Leo Szilard.
1971, Sunday Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit Mars, was launched from Cape Canaveral.
1975, Friday The European Space Agency was established.
1987, Saturday The Philips Company introduced the compact disc video (CD-V).
1989, Tuesday Death of the Yugoslav Soprano Zinka Milanov.
1992, Saturday Death of the Polish mathematician Antoni Zygmund.
1994, Monday Death of Baron Marcel Bich, French inventor of the Bic ball-point pen.

31st

1443, Friday Birth of the Dutch humanist Rudolphus Agricola.
1578, Sunday The Catacombs of Rome were discovered by accident.
1594, Friday Death of the Italian painter Jacopo Tintoretto.
1656, Saturday Birth of the French composer Marin Marais.
1662, Saturday Birth of the Dutch painter Jan Abrahamsz Beerstraaten.
1664, Tuesday Birth of the Italian cardinal and politician Guilio Alberoni.
1744, Thursday Birth of the Irish inventor Richard Lovell Edgeworth.
1809, Wednesday Death of the Austrian composer Joseph Haydn.
1817, Saturday Rossini's La Gazza Ladra premieres at La Scalla in Milan.
1817, Saturday Birth of the French violinist, conductor and composer Edouard Deldevez.
1819, Monday Birth of the American poet Walt Whitman.
1822, Friday Birth of the Spanish composer and teacher Rafael Hernando.
1832, Thursday Death of the French mathematician Evariste Galois.
1863, Sunday Birth of the English explorer Francis Younghusband.
1866, Thursday Birth of the Russian composer Vladimir Rebikov.
1879, Saturday The first electric railway opened at the Berlin Trades Exposition.
1883, Thursday Birth of the Australian soprano Frances Alda.
1884, Saturday A patent for "flaked cereal" was applied for by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg.
1906, Thursday German chemists produced fertiliser from lime for the first time.
1907, Friday Death of the Italian mathematician Francesco Siacci.
1908, Sunday Birth of the American film actor Don Ameche.
1912, Friday Birth of the English choral conductor and counter-tenor Alfred Deller.
1916, Wednesday The Battle of Jutland, in which Royal Navy losses exceeded those of the German fleet.
1927, Tuesday Death of the Italian baritone Giuseppe Campanari.
1930, Saturday Birth of the American film actor Clint Eastwood.
1931, Sunday Birth of the American mezzo-soprano Shirley Verrett.
1931, Sunday Death of the French mathematician Eug ne Cosserat.
1931, Sunday Birth of the American physicist John Robert Schrieffer (Nobel 1972).
1941, Saturday Birth of the American harpsichordist Kenneth Cooper.
1946, Friday Birth of German film director Werner Fassbinder.
1952, Saturday In the USSR, the Volga-Don Canal was opened.
1961, Wednesday South Africa became an independent republic outside the Commonwealth.
1962, Thursday Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann was hanged as a war criminal.
1973, Thursday Erskin Childers (a Protestant)was elected President of Ireland.
1976, Monday Death of the French physicist Jacques Monod (Nobel 1976).
1986, Saturday Death of the American physicist James Rainwater (Nobel 1975).
1994, Tuesday South Africa rejoined the Commonwealth.
1997, Saturday Britain lowered the Union jack on its last mainland China base, at Kowloon.
2000, Wednesday Death of the British actor Andrew Faulds.

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