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ENGLAND
Samuel Pepys
Elizabeth I
London's Underworld
Fleet Marriages.
The Cries of London
Updated.




London ... takes a lot of understanding. It's a great place. Immense. The richest town in the world, the biggest port, the greatest manufacturing town, the Imperial city - the centre of civilisation, the heart of the world.

-- H G Wells, 1909



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May Week 3
Posted on Jun 10, 2002 - 05:07 AM by Bill McCann

This page provides daily updates on past events and anniversaries during the Third week of May. The events included are those that either happened in London or had an effect, one way or another, on the lives of Londoners.


Daily updates on Events during the Third week


Below are the events and anniversaries for this week both about London and Londoners and Outside London.

The archive for these pages has been arranged in a series of monthly Digests. To speed up navigation, these have been further divided into four weekly instalments. These pages are all comprehensively interlinked.

Each Section has its own background page which provides additional and in-depth information about many of the events and people in the daily listings. They are intended to both amuse and inform and can be found at Gazette Briefings and Historical Anecdotes .

Links to the anniversaries and events in the other weeks of the month are given in the following table whilst links to the other months of the year can be found at the bottom of the page.

First WeekSecond WeekFinal Week

London and Londoners

15th

1532, Wednesday The Submission of the Clergy Bill, recognising Henry VIII's superiority in matters ecclesiastical, was passed by Parliament in the first recorded division of the House of Commons.
1536, Monday The trial of Anne Boleyn before 26 peers took place.
1611, Wednesday Shakespeare's The Winters Tale was first performed at The Globe.
1660, Tuesday Mr Pepys buys some souvenirs and three books for the sake of their binding.
1661, Wednesday Mr Evelyn is at the Royal Academy where they divert themselves with several vipers.
1740, Sunday Death of the English encyclopaedist Ephraim Chambers.
1754, Wednesday Handel conducted Messiah for the last time at a performance in the Foundling Hospital. The performance made over 600 for the charity.
1836, Saturday English astronomer Francis Baily observed "Baily's Beads" during an annular solar eclipse.
1858, Saturday Opening of the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden with a production of Meyerbeer's Les Huguenots.
1899, Monday Birth of the British founder of scientific metallurgy, William Hume-Rothery.
1899, Monday Birth of the British founder of scientific metallurgy, William Hume-Rothery.
1901, Wednesday The Admiralty decided to build three 18,000-ton battleships--the biggest in the world.
1911, Monday Kaiser Wilhelm II began a state visit to George V and the two sovereigns tentatively reasserted their friendship.
1911, Monday The House of Commons passed a bill to limit the power of the House of Lords.
1914, Friday The House of Commons rejected idea of a Scottish Home Rule bill.
1922, Monday Death of the English caricaturist Leslie Ward ('Spy').
1923, Tuesday Birth of the English conductor John Lanchbery.
1939, Monday Theater managers approved a minimum weekly wage of 2 10s for Equity members.
1979, Tuesday Prime Minister Thatcher outlined her government's plans - lower taxes and public spending, and curbs on union power.
1990, Tuesday Home-produced beef was banned in UK schools and hospitals as a result of concern over 'mad-cow disease' (bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE).
1995, Monday Death of the English actor, Londoner Eric Porter.
1995, Monday Police officers rejected proposals that they should carry weapons while on routine patrol.

16th

1220, Saturday Henry III laid the foundation stone of a new Lady Chapel at Westminster Abbey, thus beginning the new abbey-church which was completed in 1245.
1648, Tuesday Mr Evelyn reports the slaughter of petitioners by Cromwell's men in New Palace Yard.
1660, Wednesday Mr Pepys is all expectation of the King arriving on board. He plays nine-pins but only observes the card game in the evening.
1665, Tuesday Mr Evelyn joins a Committee to provide for Widows an Orphans which is immediately faced with the problem of 50 widows of the victims of a maritime disaster, 45 of whom are pregnant.
1685, Saturday Titus Oates was found guilty and sentenced to be whipped and pilloried with the utmost severity.
1751, Thursday Handel performed Messiah for charity at the Foundling Hospital and raised more than 700 Guineas.
1759, Wednesday Was held the Annual Feast of the City of London Lying-in Hospital for married Women in St.Andrew's Church, Holborn.
1843, Tuesday The first paid for telegrams were sent from Paddington to Slough.
1845, Friday Death of the English inventor and entrepreneur Charles Chubb.
1862, Friday Death of the British colonial statesman, Londoner Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
1903, Saturday East end Jews meet in Shoreditch to discuss the establishment of a homeland in Palestine.
1911, Tuesday In London, a throat specialist declared that Caruso's vocal chords were normal.
1912, Thursday The House of Commons gave a second reading to Welsh Church Disestablishment Bill.
1936, Saturday Birth of the English comedian, Londoner Roy Hudd.
1945, Wednesday The government announced that 750,000 troops would be demobbed this year.
1952, Friday The government accepted the principle of equal pay for male and female civil servants.
1979, Wednesday From today Local Education Authorities were no longer required to run schools along Comprehensive lines.
1983, Monday The Metropolitan police began using wheel clamps on illegally parked cars.
1993, Sunday In London, Edward Teller and other scientists warned that the Earth is in danger of being hit by a large comet within 100 years.

17th

1215, Sunday The English barons, in revolt against King John ,took possession of London.
1527, Friday Archbishop Warham began a secret inquiry at Greenwich into Henry VIII's marriage with Catherine of Aragon, the first step in divorce proceedings.
1536, Wednesday Archbishop Cranmer declared Henry VIII's marriage to Anne Boleyn invalid.
1536, Wednesday Thomas Boleyn, the queen's brother, and several of her alleged lovers were executed.
1575, Tuesday Death of the 71st archbishop of Canterbury Matthew Parker.
1602, Monday Chamberlain reports on the punishment of a corrupt lawyer.
1623, Saturday Chamberlain reports on some of the antics of Buckingham in the matter of the Spanish Marriage.
1660, Thursday Mr Pepys meets Charles II.
1688, Thursday Mr Evelyn has family problems in the matter of a will.
1729, Saturday Death of the English natural philosopher Samuel Clarke.
1732, Wednesday Thomas Arne conducted a Pirate version of Handel's Acis and Galatea at the New Theatre, Haymarket.
1890, Saturday The first weekly comic, Comic Cuts was published, in London.
1912, Friday The Times reported that new automatic telephone equipment was in place at Epsom, and would be tested in the afternoon of the following day.
1914, Sunday Three new sonnets by Keats were discovered and published in The Times.
1921, Tuesday Birth of the English hornplayer, Londoner Dennis Brain.
1955, Tuesday PM Eden and four ministers hold the biggest television press conference yet seen in Britain.
1998, Sunday Death of the British journalist Hugh Cudlipp.

18th

1525, Thursday Birth of the English historian and Londoner John Stow.
1593, Friday An arrest warrant was issued for Christopher Marlowe who was charged with heresy.
1616, Saturday Mr Chamberlain reports on a trial postponed and a trial concluded.
1660, Friday Mr Pepys visits Delft where he finds a new use for the poor box and happily chances on an English pub.
1688, Friday Mr Evelyn reports on a clash between James II and the Bishops.
1692, Wednesday Death of the English antiquarian Elias Ashmole.
1737, Wednesday The First performance of Handel's Berenice at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden.
1742, Tuesday Birth of London coachmaker Lionel Lukin, inventor of the lifeboat.
1764, Friday The House of Commons amended the Sugar Act from a commercial to a financial measure to allow the imposition of a tax on the American colonists.
1850, Saturday Birth of the English physicist, Londoner Oliver Heaviside.
1907, Saturday The Women's Labour League held its first conference, chaired by Mrs. Ramsay MacDonald.
1907, Saturday Birth of the English pianist, Londoner Clifford Curzon.
1909, Tuesday Death of the English novelist George Meredith.
1923, Friday Prime Minister Andrew Bonar Law was reported to be ill.
1925, Monday A report by the TUC declared that the Zinoviev Letter, inciting a communist revolution in Britain, was a forgery.
1940, Saturday At Japan's request, Britain prohibited the passage of war materials for China through Burma.
1950, Thursday In London, twelve NATO foreign ministers adopted a six-point program for strengthening ties between Western states.
1954, Tuesday Death of the Ukrainian mathematician and adopted Londoner, Selig Brodetsky.

19th

1536, Friday Anne Boleyn was executed on Tower Green.
1554, Saturday Princess Elizabeth was released from the Tower and allowed to retire to Woodstock.
1621, Saturday Mr Chamberlain reports on the humiliation of Henry Yelverton.
1649, Saturday England was declared a Commonwealth.
1660, Saturday Mr Pepys continues his tours and finds a small drinking house where the locals are eating fish in a boorish manner.
1662, Monday The Act of Uniformity gave consent to the revised English Prayer Book and denied the right to take up arms against the king; Presbyterianism in the Church was destroyed and many ministers who did not confirm were ejected. A Licensing Act forbade imports of literature contrary to Christian faith.
1756, Wednesday Handel gives his annual performance of Messiah at the Foundling Hospital.
1824, Tuesday Birth of the English mathematician, Londoner Francis Maseres.
1886, Wednesday First performance of Saint-Saen's Symphony No. 3, the Organ Symphony, in London.
1907, Sunday Death of the English civil engineer Sir Benjamin Baker.
1920, Wednesday Birth of the English Actress, Londoner Renee Asherson.
1931, Tuesday Birth of the English actor, Londoner Trevor Peacock.
1939, Friday The TUC decided not to oppose the government's conscription plans.
1939, Friday Birth of the English actor, Londoner James Fox.
1947, Monday The House of Lords attacked the plan to construct the Bankside power station across the river from St. Paul's Cathedral.
1949, Thursday In London, Egypt agreed to Britain's plans for a White Nile dam in Uganda.
1984, Saturday Death of the English poet, Londoner John Betjeman.
1997, Monday A ruling by the Speaker of the House of Commons denied the privileges of the House to the newly-elected Sinn Fein MPs because of their refusal to take the oath of allegiance to the Queen.
1999, Wednesday Elizabeth II approves the appointment of Andrew Motion as the new Poet Laureate.

20th

1536, Saturday Henry VIII was betrothed to Jane Seymour.
1553, Saturday Sir Hugh Willoughby set sail in search of North-East passage.
1609, Saturday Shakespeare's Sonnets were entered in Stationers' Register by Thomas Thorpe.
1615, Saturday Chamberlain describes the rivalry in ostentation between two new knights and the King visits Cambridge to see again the play that has nettled the Lord Chief Justice.
1620, Saturday Chamberlain reports on the proclamation issued against Captain North at the request of the Spanish ambassador.
1660, Sunday Mr Pepys misses a chance with a lady for want of courage and avoids being seasick by getting wet.
1726, Friday Death of the Anglican clergyman Nicholas Brady.
1772, Wednesday Birth of the English artillery officer and inventor, Londoner Sir William Congreve.
1806, Tuesday Birth of the English philosopher, Londoner John Stuart Mill.
1895, Monday Birth of the English aircraft designer (Spitfire) R.J. Mitchell.
1913, Monday The London dockers went on strike.
1914, Wednesday The Government acquired a controlling interest in the Anglo-Persian Oil Co.
1916, Saturday Britain agrees to supply France with coal, since most French collieries are under German occupation.
1927, Friday By the treaty of Jeddah Britain recognized the independence of Saudi Arabia.
1946, Monday The government proposed free scholarships to universities.
1946, Monday A bill for the nationalisation of the mining industry was passed by the Commons.
1950, Saturday Birth of the English organist Jane Parker Smith.
1952, Tuesday The Nature Conservancy Council declared eight areas of England and Scotland as nature reserves.
1952, Tuesday Birth of the English opera director Tim Albery.
1956, Saturday Death of the English writer and caricaturist, Londoner Max Beerbohm.
1958, Tuesday The British Motor Company unveiled its new sports car, the Austin Healey Sprite.
1966, Friday Birth of the English clarinetist Emma Johnson.
1975, Tuesday Death of the English sculptor Barbara Hepworth.
1977, Friday The Orient Express left on its last trip.
1985, Monday The House of Commons agreed to consider Sunday Trading proposals.
1986, Tuesday British Rail announced major staff cutbacks in its engineering works.

21st

1471, Tuesday Secret murder of Henry VI in the Tower.
1553, Sunday Lady Jane Grey was reluctantly married to Lord Guilford Dudley, Northumberland's son.
1660, Monday Mr Pepys sleeps late, breakfasts on oysters, sits out the foul weather and is at a loss at what to do.
1662, Wednesday Charles II married Catherine de Braganza, daughter of John IV of Portugal.
1671, Sunday Death of the Parliamentarian leader in the English Civil War Edward Montagu, Earl of Manchester.
1685, Thursday Mr Evelyn has a private view of the Queen's crown and is surprised at its value.
1688, Monday Birth of the English poet and satirist, Londoner Alexander Pope.
1724, Thursday Death of the British politician, Londoner Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford.
1736, Friday Birth of Francis Egerton, Duke of Bridgwater and builder of Britain's first canal.
1767, Thursday Charles Townshend, First Lord of Trade and the Plantations, introduced taxes on imports of tea, glass, paper, and dyestuffs in American colonies to provide revenue for colonial administration.
1780, Sunday Birth of the English prison reformer Elizabeth Fry.
1827, Monday The Standard newspaper launched. It later became the Evening Standard and is still published daily in London.
1840, Thursday Britain claimed complete sovereignty over New Zealand.
1853, Saturday The Aquatic Vivarium, the world's first public aquarium, was opened at Regent's Park Zoo.
1892, Saturday The newspaper Morning was founded. It became London Morning in 1898, then the Morning Herald. It was purchased by C. Arthur Pearson and in September 1900 merged with the Daily Express.
1914, Thursday In London, an international conference on the Protection of African elephants and rhinoceroses was held at the Foreign Office.
1916, Sunday British Summer Time was invented.
1918, Tuesday The first British minimum wage orders were applied to agricultural workers.
1926, Friday Birth of the English bass Forbes Robinson.
1946, Thursday A world wheat shortage led to bread rationing in Britain.
1947, Wednesday The City proposed the demolition of the Mansion House as part of massive rebuilding plans after World War II.
1965, Friday Death of the British aircraft designer Geoffrey de Havilland.
1976, Friday It was announced that Sterling had lost 12.5% of its value on foreign currency markets in the past three months.
1996, Thursday After the failure of EU representatives to take steps to ease the ban on British beef, John Major announced that the British government would adopt a policy of non-cooperation with the European Union.
1990, Monday The Confederation of British Industry claimed that crime costs companies over 5 billion a year.
1997, Wednesday The British government announced a complete ban on anti-personnel landmines.

2000, Sunday Death of the English novelist Barbara Cartland.
2000, Sunday Death of the English actor John Gielgud.

Outside London

15th

1482, Wednesday Death of the Italian mapmaker Paolo Toscanelli.
1501, Saturday Ottaviano Petrucci of Venice founded the first modern-style music publishing house, by producing the first book of music made from movable type.
1567, Saturday Birth of the Italian composer Claudio Monteverdi.
1567, Saturday Mary Queen of Scots married Bothwell in Edinburgh.
1618, Friday Johannes Kepler discovered his law of harmonics.
1625, Sunday Birth of the Italian painter Carlo Maratti.
1649, Tuesday The Leveller [republican] inspired mutineers were defeated at Burford.
1713, Friday Birth of the French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille.
1773, Saturday Birth of the Austrian politician Clemens Prince Metternich.
1782, Wednesday Death of the Welsh landscape painter Richard Wilson.
1808, Sunday Birth of the Irish composer Michael William Balfe.
1813, Saturday Birth of the Hungarian pianist Stephen Heller.
1835, Friday Birth of the French mathematician Emile Mathieu.
1845, Thursday Birth of the Russian zoologist lie Metchnikoff (Nobel 1908).
1847, Saturday Death of the Irish parliamentary leader and Landleaguer Daniel O'Connell.
1858, Saturday Death of the American chemist Robert Hare.
1859, Sunday Birth of the French physicist Pierre Curie.
1862, Thursday Birth of the Austrian novelist and playwright Arthur Schnitzler.
1891, Friday Birth of the Ukrainian novelist Mikhail Bulgakov.
1904, Sunday Death of the French physiologist tienne-Jules Marey, who invented the sphygmograph which provides a plot of the heartbeat and pulse.
1905, Monday Birth of the English novelist H E Bates.
1908, Friday Claude Monet destroyed some of his paintings which he didn't like valued at $100,000.
1908, Friday Birth of the Swedish composer Lars-Erik Larsson.
1909, Saturday Birth of the English actor James Mason.
1918, Wednesday Birth of the American film actor Eddy Arnold.
1919, Thursday Nurse Edith Cavell, whose body has been brought back from Belgium, is reinterred in Norwich.
1920, Saturday First performance of Stravinsky's Pulcinella by Ballet Russe in Paris.
1926, Saturday Birth of the English playwright Peter Shaffer.
1926, Saturday Birth of the English playwright Anthony Shaffer.
1923, Tuesday Listerine was registered as a trademark.
1932, Sunday Death of the Japanese Mathematician Taira Honda.
1936, Friday Birth of the British cartoonist Ralph Steadman.
1939, Monday Birth of the English mathematician Brian Hartley.
1941, Thursday Britain's first jet-propelled aircraft, the Gloucester-Whittle E.28/39, flew for the first time.
1957, Wednesday Britain exploded her first thermonuclear bomb in the megaton range at Christmas Island in the Central Pacific.
1958, Thursday The USSR placed Sputnik 3 in orbit for aerodynamic studies.
1971, Saturday Death of Donald F. Duncan, the American inventor and manufacturer of the Yo-Yo.
1972, Monday The Queen made a state visit to France.
1987, Friday Death of the American film actress Rita Hayworth.

16th

1763, Monday Birth of the French chemist Nicolas-Louis Vauquelin.
1782, Thursday Birth of the English watercolourist John Sell Cotman.
1792, Wednesday Opening of Teatro la Fenice in Venice, with the farewell performance by the tenor Gasparo Pacchiarotti.
1804, Wednesday Napoleon was declared Emperor of France.
1821, Wednesday Birth of the Russian mathematician Pafnuty Chebyshev.
1830, Sunday Death of the French mathematician Joseph Fourier.
1870, Monday First performance of Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture in Moscow with Nicolas Rubinstein conducting.
1874, Saturday First performance of Verdi's Messa da Requiem at San Marco, Venice.
1892, Monday Birth of the Austrian tenor Richard Tauber [Ernst Seiffert].
1892, Monday Death of the English historian Edward Augustus Freeman.
1902, Friday Birth of the Polish tenor Jan Kiepura.
1905, Tuesday Birth of the American film actor Henry Fonda.
1912, Thursday Birth of the Austrian conductor Felix Prohaska.
1919, Friday Birth of the American piano playing entertainer Liberace.
1922, Tuesday Birth of the Austrian conductor Otmar Suitner.
1927, Monday The French President, Gaston Doumergue, arrived in London on a state visit.
1930, Friday Birth of the Austrian pianist Friedrich Gulda.
1934, Wednesday Birth of the New Zealand mathematician Roy P Kerr.
1935, Thursday Death of the Scottish mathematician Hector Macdonald.
1943, Sunday The RAF dambusters raid took place.
1946, Thursday The world's first magnetic tape recorder was demonstrated.
1947, Friday Death of the English biochemist Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (Nobel 1929).
1950, Tuesday Birth of the German physicist J. Georg Bednorz (Nobel 1987).
1953, Saturday Birth of the Irish actor Pierce Brosnan.
1953, Saturday Birth of the English baroque violinist, Londoner Monica Huggett.
1955, Monday Birth of the American film actress Debra Winger.
1959, Saturday Birth of the American conductor Andrew Litton.
1966, Monday British seamen went on strike.
1991, Tuesday During her state visit to Washington, Queen Elizabeth II addressed a joint session of Congress.

17th

1510, Friday Death of the Italian painter Sandro Botticelli.
1620, Wednesday The first recorded merry-go-round was introduced at a fair in Philippopolis, Turkey.
1717, Friday Birth of Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria.
1749, Wednesday Birth of the English pioneer of vaccination Edward Jenner.
1765, Friday Death of the French mathematician Alexis Clairaut.
1803, Tuesday First performance of Beethoven's Kreutzer sonata with Beethoven at the piano and Bridgetower on the violin at the Augarten in Vienna.
1817, Saturday Birth of the Scottish palaeontologist Thomas Davidson.
1836, Tuesday Birth of the English astronomer Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer.
1838, Thursday Death of the French politician Charles de Talleyrand-P rigord.
1855, Thursday Birth of the Irish nationalist leader Tim Healy.
1866, Thursday Birth of the French composer Erik Satie.
1873, Saturday Birth of the British novelist and stream-of-consciousness pioneer Dorothy M Richardson.
1890, Saturday Mascagni's Cavalleria Rusticana premieres in Rome.
1897, Monday Birth of the Norwegian physical chemist Odd Hassel (Nobel 1969).
1900, Thursday In the Boer War, the siege of Mafeking was relieved by British troops.
1900, Thursday Birth of the Russian violinist Nicolai Berezowsky.
1902, Saturday Birth of the Italian conductor Fausto Cleva.
1906, Wednesday Birth of the Yugoslav soprano Zinka Milanov.
1911, Wednesday Birth of the American film actress Maureen O'Sullivan.
1913, Saturday Death of the German mathematician Heinrich Weber.
1916, Wednesday First Air Board was established with Lord Curzon in the chair.
1916, Wednesday Death of the Russian physicist Boris Borisovich Golitsyn.
1918, Friday Birth of the Swedish soprano Birgit Nilsson.
1924, Saturday Birth of the French baritone Gabriel Bacquier.
1927, Tuesday The British cruiser Berwick maintained a speed of 32-35 knots for eight hours in high speed trials.
1935, Thursday Death of the French composer Paul Dukas.
1936, Saturday Birth of the Swedish playwright, novelist, and poet Lars Gustafsson.
1944, Wednesday Birth of the English pianist Paul Crossley.
1945, Thursday Birth of the English baritone Brian Rayner Cook.
1945, Thursday Birth of the American film actor Dennis Hopper.
1949, Tuesday Britain recognised Dublin's independence.
1955, Tuesday In the U.S. an atomic reactor was patented by scientists Fermi and Szilard.
1958, Saturday Birth of the English conductor Ivor Bolton.
1961, Wednesday Guildford Cathedral was consecrated in the presence of Queen Elizabeth.
1977, Tuesday Death of the German physicist Erwin Wilhelm M ller.
1993, Monday Rebecca Stephens became the first British woman to climb Mount Everest.
1993, Monday Nurse Beverley Allitt was convicted of murdering four children under her care at the Grantham and Kesteven hospital.

18th

1048, Tuesday Birth of the Persian astronomer and mathematician Omar Khayy m.
1152, Sunday Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine were married at Poitiers.
1525, Thursday Birth of the Flemish painter Pieter Brueghel the Elder.
1525, Thursday Birth of the English poet and playwright George Gascoigne.
1610, Friday Birth of the Italian printmaker Stefano della Bella.
1616, Saturday Birth of the German composer and organist Johann Jakob Froberger.
1692, Wednesday Birth of the English philosopher Joseph Butler.
1711, Friday Birth of the Dalmatian mathematician Ruggero Boscovich.
1778, Monday Gluck's Iphigenie en Tauride premieres in Paris.
1787, Friday Glass was engraved for the first time in Toulouse, France.
1799, Saturday Death of the French playwright Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais.
1824, Tuesday Birth of the German botanist Wilhelm (Friedrich Benedikt) Hofmeister.
1830, Tuesday Edwin Budding of Stroud, Gloucestershire signed an agreement for the manufacture of his invention, the lawn mower.
1830, Tuesday Birth of the Hungarian composer Karl Goldmark.
1872, Saturday Birth of the British philosopher Bertrand Russell.
1875, Tuesday Birth of Italian pianist and teacher Guido Alberto Fano.
1878, Saturday Colombia granted a French company a nine-year concession to build the Panama Canal.
1887, Wednesday Chabrier's Le Roi malgre lui premieres at Opera Comique in Paris.
1892, Wednesday Birth of the Italian bass Ezio Pinza.
1900, Friday Tonga became a British protectorate.
1901, Saturday Birth of the American biochemist Vincent du Vigneaud (Nobel 1955).
1909, Tuesday Death of the Spanish composer and pianist Isaac Albeniz.
1910, Wednesday The first ever conference on air traffic opened in Paris.
1910, Wednesday Halley's Comet was visible across the Earth as it moved across the face of the sun.
1911, Thursday Death of the Austrian composer Gustav Mahler.
1912, Saturday Death of the German plant cytologist Eduard Adolf Strasburger.
1913, Sunday Birth of the American vocalist Perry Como.
1914, Monday Birth of the Slovakian mathematician Stefan Schwarz.
1917, Friday First performance of Eric Satie's Parade by Diaghilev and the Ballet Russe in Paris.
1918, Saturday Birth of the Bulgarian bass Boris Christoff.
1919, Sunday Birth of the English Prima Ballerina Margot Fonteyn [Peggy Hookham].
1920, Tuesday Birth of Karol Wojtyla, Pope John Paul II.
1924, Sunday Birth of the German born French pianist Samson Francois.
1924, Sunday Death of the Italian mathematician Corrado Segre.
1934, Friday Trans world Airways (TWA) began commercial service on a DC-2.
1936, Monday An army revolt under Emilio Mola and Francisco Franco began the Spanish Civil War.
1941, Sunday Birth of the Scottish astronomer Malcolm Sim Longair.
1949, Wednesday Birth of the Finnish composer Mikko Heinio.
1969, Sunday The United States launched the Apollo 10 mission to the Moon.
1971, Tuesday Death of the Russian mathematician Aleksandr Gennadievich Kurosh.
1975, Sunday Death of the Polish physical chemist Kasimir Fajans.
1990, Friday A treaty forming the basis for monetary union between East & West Germany was signed in Berlin.
1991, Saturday The first British subject into space, Helen Sharman, launched with two cosmonauts in a Soyuz spacecraft.
1992, Monday In Oxford, a coroner's jury ruled that U.S. pilots are responsible for the friendly fire which killed nine British soldiers during the Gulf War.

19th

804, Sunday Death of the English poet Alcuin of York.
1585, Wednesday English shipping in Spanish ports was confiscated as a reprisal for depredations across the Line. This amounted to a declaration of war on England.
1593, Saturday Birth of the Flemish painter Jacob Jordaens.
1593, Saturday Birth of the French painter Claude Vignon.
1762, Wednesday Birth of the German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte.
1832, Saturday Birth of the French mathematician Edmond Bour.
1857, Tuesday The first U.S. patent for a "magnetic electric fire alarm" was issued. The city of Boston adopted the system, having voted in June 1851 to spend $10,000 to test the device.
1861, Sunday Birth of the Australian soprano Nellie Melba, [Helen Porter Mitchell].
1869, Wednesday Birth of the Irish botanist Henry Horatio Dixon.
1884, Monday Birth of the Belgian composer Arthur Meulemans.
1896, Tuesday Birth of the Swedish mezzo-soprano Kerstin Thorborg.
1898, Thursday Birth of the Irish Actress Kitty McShane.
1906, Saturday The Simplon rail tunnel between Switzerland and Italy was officially opened.
1910, Thursday The Earth passed through the tail of Halley's Comet. This remains the most intimate contact between the Earth and any comet in recorded history.
1911, Friday First performance of Ravel's L'Heure espagnole at The Opera Comique in Paris.
1912, Sunday Birth of the British organ craftsman Noel Mander.
1914, Tuesday Birth of the Austrian biochemist Max Ferdinand Perutz (Nobel 1962).
1919, Monday Birth of the Russian mathematician Georgii Suvorov.
1935, Sunday Death of the Anglo-Irish Soldier and author T E Lawrence.
1936, Tuesday Oxford University Union Society banned women speakers.
1942, Tuesday Death of the Irish mathematician Joseph Larmor.
1949, Thursday Birth of the English baritone Stephen Varcoe.
1953, Tuesday Birth of the English Comedienne Victoria Wood.
1954, Wednesday Death of the American composer Charles Ives.
1959, Tuesday The first submarine with two nuclear reactors was completed in the U.S.

20th

1191, Monday Richard I the Lion Heart conquered Cyprus from its independent Greek ruler, then joined the Crusaders at Acre in Palestine.
1444, Wednesday Birth of the Italian architect Donato d'Agnolo Bramante de Urbino.
1444, Wednesday Birth of the Italian painter Sandro Botticelli.
1506, Wednesday Death of the Genoese navigator Christopher Columbus.
1509, Sunday Death of the Countess of Forli Caterina Sforza.
1537, Sunday Birth of the Italian pioneer embryologist Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente.
1631, Friday Flemish commander Count Tilly's imperialist army sacked Magdeburg; terrible carnage ensued and the city caught fire, leaving only the cathedral standing.
1747, Wednesday An experiment to remedy scurvy among sailors was begun by a British ship's surgeon, James Lind, on HMS Salisbury. He regulated the diets of the sailors, and especially included lemons and oranges.
1793, Monday Death of the Swiss naturalist Charles Bonnet.
1798, Sunday Death of the Swedish mathematician Erland Bring.
1799 Monday Birth of the French novelist Honor de Balzac.
1803, Friday Birth of the English poet and physiologist Thomas Beddoes.
1830, Wednesday D. Hyde of Pennsylvania patented the fountain pen. It was 1884 before a truly practical fountain pen was invented by Lewis Waterman. In the first year, 200 Waterman pens were made by hand. Subsequently, Waterman designed machinery to produce them in larger quantities.
1856, Tuesday The first telegraph ticker that successfully printed type was patented in Louisville, Ky.
1860, Sunday Birth of the German biochemist Eduard Buchner (Nobel 1907).
1861, Monday The first daily newspaper was published in Wales when the Cambrian Daily Leader was launched in Swansea.
1861, Monday Birth of the American mathematician Henry White.
1864, Friday Death of the English poet John Clare.
1875, Thursday The International Bureau of Weights and Measures was established in S vres, France, by the International Metric Convention.
1890, Tuesday Birth of the Italian tenor Beniamino Gigli.
1892, Friday George Sampson patented the clothes dryer.
1893, Saturday Birth of the German bass-baritone Hans Hermann Nissen.
1896, Wednesday Death of the German pianist Clara Schumann.
1901, Monday Claude Grivolas, one of Pathe's main shareholders in Paris, invented a projector that produced three-dimensional pictures.
1908, Wednesday Birth of the American film actor James Stewart.
1909, Thursday Birth of the Austrian bass-baritone Erich Kunz.
1913, Tuesday Birth of the American electrical engineer William Hewlett.
1918, Monday Birth of the American geneticist Edward B. Lewis (Nobel 1995).
1920, Thursday Birth of the American pianist Hephzibah Menuhin.
1923, Sunday Death of the German chemist Hans Goldschmidt.
1924, Tuesday Birth of the English politician Peter Shore.
1926, Thursday Birth of the English conductor George Hurst.
1927, Friday At 07:40 Charles Lindbergh took off from Roosevelt Field in Long Island, N.Y., aboard the Spirit of St. Louis monoplane on his historic first solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean.
1930, Tuesday For the first time, an airplane was catapulted from a U.S. dirigible.
1938, Friday Dramatist Henry Bernstein wounded Edouard Bourdet, Administrator General of the Comedie Francaise, in a nine-minute duel.
1939, Saturday Pan-American Airways began scheduled transatlantic services to Europe.
1940, Monday Birth of the Swiss conductor Karl Anton Rickenbacker.
1940, Monday Inventor Igor Sikorsky demonstrated the first helicopter to the public.
1943, Thursday Death of the American mathematician Henry White.
1944, Saturday Nazi officers attempted to assassinate Hitler at a staff meeting.
1947, Tuesday Death of the German physicist Philipp Lenard (Nobel 1905).
1956, Saturday The first hydrogen bomb was tested on Bikini Atoll, in the Pacific.
1978, Saturday The Americans launched Pioneer Venus 1, which produced radar maps of Venus.
1990, Sunday The Hubble Space Telescope sent its first photograph from space, an image of a double star 1,260 light years away.
1991, Monday The Soviet government began allowing citizens to leave the country if they wished.
2000, Saturday Death of the French flautiust Jean Pierre Rampal.

21st

1265, Thursday Birth of the Italian poet Dante Alighieri.
1471, Tuesday Birth of the German painter and engraver Albrecht D rer.
1527, Tuesday Birth of Philip II of Spain.
1619, Friday Death of the Italian pioneering embryologist Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente (see yesterday).
1639, Tuesday Death of the Italian philosopher Tomaso Campanella.
1650, Tuesday The Scottish general James, Marquess of Montrose was hanged in Edinburgh.
1670, Friday Death of the Italian astronomer Niccol Zucchi.
1690, Wednesday Death of the Italian composer Giovanni Legrenzi.
1786, Sunday Death of the Swedish chemist Karl Wilhelm Scheele.
1792, Monday Birth of the French mathematician Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis.
1815, Sunday Death of the English Chemist William Nicholson.
1848, Sunday Death of the French mathematician Pierre Wantzel.
1851, Wednesday Gold was first discovered in Australia.
1858, Friday Birth of the French mathematician Edouard Goursat.
1860, Monday Birth of the Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven (Nobel 1924).
1889, Tuesday Death of the French physicist Gaston Plant .
1892, Saturday Leoncavallo's I Pagliacci premieres in Milan.
1894, Monday The Manchester Ship Canal was officially opened.
1894, Monday Death of the German physicist August Kundt.
1895, Tuesday Death of the Austrian composer Frfanz von Suppe [Francesco Ezechiele Ermenegildo Cavaliere Supp Demelli].
1908, Thursday The Lusitania set a new record for westbound Atlantic passage of four days, 20 hours and 12 minutes.
1916, Sunday Birth of the American novelist Harold Robbins.
1917, Monday Birth of the Canadian actor Raymond Burr.
1921, Saturday Birth of the Soviet nuclear physicist, dissident Andrey Dmitriyevich Sakharov.
1925, Saturday Busoni's Doktor Faust premieres in Dresden.
1929, Tuesday Birth of the American pianist Charles Wadsworth.
1933, Sunday Birth of the French trumpeter Maurice Andre.
1934, Monday Birth of the Swedish biochemist Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson (Nobel 1982).
1935, Tuesday Death of the Dutch botanist Hugo (Marie) de Vries.
1939, Sunday Birth of the Swiss oboist Heinz Holliger.
1949, Saturday Birth of the English soprano Rosalind Plowright.
1951, Monday Birth of the English Actress Jacqueline Tong.
1953, Thursday MPs gave a second reading to a bill aimed at removing anomalies in the system of Rates.
1953, Thursday Death of the German mathematician Ernst Zermelo.
1957, Tuesday Death of the Russian physicist Aleksandr Nekrasov.
1964, Thursday Death of the German physicist James Franck (Nobel 1925).

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