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ENGLAND
Samuel Pepys
Elizabeth I
London's Underworld
Fleet Marriages.
The Cries of London
Updated.




When a man is tired of london, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford.

-- Samuel Johnson 1777



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May Week 2
Posted on Jun 10, 2002 - 05:04 AM by Bill McCann

This page provides daily updates on past events and anniversaries during the Second week of May. The events included are those that either happened in London or had an effect, one way or another, on the lives of Londoners.


Daily updates on Events during the Second week


Below are the events and anniversaries for this week both about London and Londoners and Outside London.

he archive for these pages has been arranged in a series of monthly Digests. To speed up navigation, these have been further divided into four weekly instalments. These pages are all comprehensively interlinked.

Each Section has its own background page which provides additional and in-depth information about many of the events and people in the daily listings. They are intended to both amuse and inform and can be found at Gazette Briefings and Historical Anecdotes .

Links to the anniversaries and events in the other weeks of the month are given in the following table whilst links to the other months of the year can be found at the bottom of the page.

First WeekThird WeekFinal Week

London and Londoners

8th

1539, Wednesday At Moor Fields, Henry VIII reviewed the trained bands who would defend London from any attack.
1559, Monday Elizabeth I of signed the Act of Uniformity.
1592, Monday Birth of the English poet Francis Quarles.
1602, Saturday Chamberlain reports that two ships left Deptford in search of the north-west passage.
1626, Monday Parliament impeached Buckingham because of his failure at Cadiz.
1654, Monday Mr Evelyn visits Lady Brooks' garden in Hackney.
1660, Tuesday Mr Pepys loses another nine shillings at nine-pins.
1660, Tuesday Parliament formally proclaimed Charles II.
1661, Wednesday The Cavalier Parliament first assembled, bent of revenge.
1698, Sunday Birth of the English naturalist Henry Baker.
1740, Thursday Prince Frederick of Hesse and Princess Mary were married in the Chapel Royal.
1808, Sunday Birth of the British civil engineer John Scott Russell designer of the first seagoing iron battleship.
1847, Saturday Robert W. Thomson of Middlesex was issued the first U.S. patent for Rubber tyres.
1873, Thursday Death of the English philosopher, Londoner John Stuart Mill.
1904, Sunday Death of the English pioneer photographer, Londoner Eadweard Muybridge.
1918, Wednesday The Government took control of the London Central Meat Markets in Smithfield.
1926, Saturday Birth of the English naturalist and broadcaster, Londoner David Attenborough.
1931, Friday The first scheduled television outside broadcast took place from Long Acre.
1936, Friday Death of the English mathematician, Londoner Lorna Swain.
1945, Tuesday Formal end of World War II, celebrated as VE [Victory in Europe] day.
1960, Sunday Death of the English mathematician, Londoner Henry Whitehead.
1961, Monday George Blake received a record jail term of 42 years after been convicted of spying for the USSR.
1967, Monday Birth of the English ballerina Viviana Durante.
1984, Tuesday The Thames Barrier in Woolwich was officially opened.
1989, Monday In London, tests begin on humans for new AIDS vaccine.
1993, Saturday Death of the British Journalist and wartime broadcaster, Edward Ward (Viscount Bangor).
1997, Thursday Abbas Gokal was convicted of a 740 million fraud involving the Bank of Credit and Commerce International, sentenced to 14 years in jail and fined a record 2.9 million.
1998, Friday Results a referendum showed that four out of five Londoners were in favour of an elected mayor and assembly to run the city's affairs.

9th

1594, Thursday Shakespeare'sThe Rape of Lucrece was entered in Stationers' Register.
1611, Thursday Charterhouse School was founded.
1618, Saturday Death of the English navigator James Lancaster.
1660, Wednesday Mr Pepys sets sail for Flushing to accompany Charles II back to England. He continues to lose at nine-pins.
1660, Wednesday Whilst Mr Evelyn, still weak and convalescent, is unable to make the voyage to his great regret.
1750, Wednesday Handel became a Governor of the Foundling Hospital.
1828, Friday The Test and Corporation Acts were repealed. Catholics and Protestant Nonconformists could now hold public office in Britain.
1874, Saturday Birth of Londoner Lilian Baylis, founder of the Old Vic theatre and the Sadler's Wells Ballet.
1887, Monday Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show opened the new Earls Court Entertainment Park.
1891, Saturday Birth of the English mathematician, Londoner George Jeffrey.
1906, Wednesday The Labour MP Henry Vivian called for a reduction in arms expenditure.
1908, Saturday Winston Churchill became President of the Board of Trade.
1925, Saturday George V opened the second season of the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley.
1929, Thursday Birth of the English tenor Nigel Douglas.
1936, Saturday Birth of the English actor, Londoner Terry Downes.
1938, Monday Scotland Yard announced that it was to start using police dogs.
1939, Tuesday In the face of the Nazi threat, Winston Churchill urged a military alliance with the USSR.
1944, Tuesday Death of the English composer and suffragette Ethel Smyth.
1947, Friday The first British launderette opened in Queensway for a six month trial period.
1954, Sunday Birth of the English actor, Londoner Marc Sinden.
1957, Thursday Labour made gains in local council elections.
1958, Thursday Birth of the English actress, Londoner Tessa Peake-Jones.
1961, Tuesday Birth of the English soprano Alison Hagley.
1979, Wednesday James Callaghan was re-elected leader of the Labour party.
1993, Sunday Death of the English traveler mountaineer and writer Freya Stark.
1996, Wednesday The House of Commons voted to maintain the Ministry of Defence ban on homosexuals serving in the armed forces.
1997, Thursday The newly elected Prime Minister, Tony Blair, was criticised for unilaterally changing the format of Prime Minister's Question Time without first seeking the approval of the Commons or consulting the Speaker (who refused to reduce the number of questions asked).

10th

1532, Friday Henry VIII forbade the Convocation independent legislative power.
1600, Saturday Mr Chamberlain reports on a skirmish between English Merchant ships and Spanish Galleons in the English Channel.
1617, Saturday Mr Chamberlain gossips about the installation of Sir Francis Bacon as Lord Keeper.
1654, Wednesday Mr Evelyn visits the Mulbery-Garden and laments te closure of the Spring Garden at Vauxhall by Cromwell and the Puritans.
1660, Wednesday Mr Pepys busies himself with letter-writing (and avoids nine-pins!).
1758, Wednesday Was held the Anniversary Sermon of the Charity of the Middlesex- Hospital for Sick and Lame, and for Lying-in Married Women, in Marylebone-Fields, Oxford-Road.
1804, Thursday William Pitt the younger formed is second Administration.
1829, Sunday Death of the English physicist, physician and Egyptologist Thomas Young.
1852, Monday The theory of valence was announced by English chemist Sir Edward Frankland.
1907, Friday The bill providing an old-age pension of five shillings a week to people over 65 had its Second Reading in the House of Commons.
1910, Tuesday The House of Commons voted to abolish the House of Lords' veto over appropriations bills.
1910, Tuesday The House of Commons resolved that the maximum lifetime of Parliament be reduced from seven to five years.
1911, Wednesday The General Omnibus Co., United Tramways Co., and the underground railroad companies provisionally agreed on joint public transport operations.
1915, Tuesday Zeppelins made their first air raids on London.
1926, Monday Talks to end the General Strike began.
1927, Tuesday Plans to rebuild Waterloo and Lambeth Bridges and build a two-deck bridge at Charing Cross were unveiled by the LCC.
1940, Friday Winston Churchill took over from Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister.
1941, Saturday The House of Commons was destroyed in London's heaviest air raid.
1951, Thursday Conservative gains in the English and Welsh local elections, Labour lost Leeds, Bradford, and Bristol.
1968, Friday A seven-sided 50 New Pence coin replaced the ten shilling note.
1976, Monday Liberal Party leader Jeremy Thorpe resigned over allegations of homosexuality.

11th

1534, Monday Henry VIII concluded a peace with his nephew James V of Scotland.
1537, Friday The monks John of Rochester and James Walworth from the Charterhouse were executed for refusing to take the Oath of supremacy.
1622, Saturday Mr Chamberlain is trying to find a copy of John Barclay's Argenis.
1654 Thursday Mr Evelyn distinctly does not approve of the new fashion of ladies painting themselves.
1660, Friday Mr Pepys sees the Arms of the Commonwealth removed from the Fleet and replaced with those of Charles II.
1666, Friday Mr Evelyn begins the conversion of Leeds castle into a prison.
1736, Tuesday The comedy The Inconstant was given at Covent Garden as a benefit for Mr. Wood.
1778, Monday Death of the English Statesman William Pitt the Elder, Earl of Chatham.
1812, Monday The Prime Minister, Spencer Perceval, was assassinated in the Lobby of the House of Commons.
1838, Friday Death of the English horticulturalist and botanist Thomas Andrew Knight.
1871, Thursday Death of the English astronomer John Herschel.
1889, Saturday Birth of the English painter, Londoner Paul Nash.
1892, Wednesday Birth of the English actress, Londoner Margaret Rutherford.
1903, Monday The Government announced that the new Transvaal loan was 40 times oversubscribed with a total offer of 1,174 million.
1906, Friday In the Royal Albert Hall there was a mass meeting to protest against Birrel's Education Bill which was designed to remove discrimination against Catholics and Non-Conformists. It was subsequently destroyed by destructive amendments tabled by the Anglican Bishops in the Lords.
1908, Monday A Bill to introduce a new Official Secrets Act was withdrawn for further consultation following strong objections from the press.
1938, Wednesday In London, refrigerators were reduced in price, to 22.
1947, Sunday The Conservative party issued its Industrial Charter.
1956, Friday The Colonial Secretary, A T Lennox-Boyd, approved Gold Coast independence.
1961, Thursday Following the George Blake case, the Macmillan government announced an independent review of the security services.
1963, Saturday Birth of the English actress, Londoner Natasha Richardson.
1967, Thursday Britain, together with Ireland and Denmark applies for admission to the European economic Community.
1977, Wednesday Former head of the police pornography squad, Wallace Virgo, was found guilty of taking bribes from Soho vice kings.
1980, Thursday Cats became the longest running musical in the West End.
1990, Friday The European was launched by Robert Maxwell. It ceased publication on 14 December 1998.
1995, Thursday Lord Nolan presented his report on the standards in public life aimed at cleaning up sleaze at Westminster.

12th

1536, Friday Sir Francis Weston, Mark Smeaton and other alleged lovers of Anne Boleyn were tried for treason.
1614, Thursday Mr Chamberlain writes of election frauds and new writs.
1634, Monday Death of the English playwright George Chapman.
1636, Thursday The Theatres in London were closed because of plague.
1641, Wednesday Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, was executed.
1641, Wednesday Mr Evelyn witnessed the execution.
1660, Saturday Mr Pepys weighs anchor and enjoys the cruise along the Channel.
1670, Thursday The Duke of Bedford was granted permission to regulate a daily market at Covent Garden.
1687, Thursday Mr Evelyn reports a hurricane in London.
1736, Wednesday First performance of Handel's Atalanta at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden. It was dedicated to the Prince of Wales, who was present.
1760, Monday Birth of the English comedian John Bannister.
1812, Tuesday Birth of the English poet and humorist, Londoner Edward Lear.
1828, Monday Birth of the English painter and poet, Londoner Dante Gabriel Rossetti.
1912, Sunday The Army Air Battalion joined the Royal Flying Corps.
1921, Thursday In London, a man collapsed and died after waiting in a queue for unemployment benefit. There were several cases of men fainting from hunger after long waits in these queues.
1925, Tuesday Death of the British politician Alfred Lord Milner.
1927, Thursday In London, 150 police officers raided the Soviet Agency, seizing all documents.
1930, Friday Death of the English politician and cabinet minister John Wheatley.
1937, Wednesday The Coronation of George VI. The BBC televised the procession in its first ever outside broadcast.
1938, Thursday MPs called for an enquiry into the nation's air defenses.
1940, Sunday The Government ordered the round-up of all Germans in Britain to prevent aid to possible German parachutists.
1944, Friday Death of the English writer Arthur Quiller-Couch ('Q').
1949, Thursday The House of Commons ratified the North Atlantic Treaty.
1958, Monday It was announced that 160 square miles of the Surrey countryside would be established as an area of outstanding natural beauty.
1967, Friday Death of the English poet John Masefield (Poet Laureate 1930).
1976, Wednesday Veteran Liberal politician Jo Grimond took over as interim party leader.
1989, Friday The BBC unions launched a campaign of strikes in support of a 16% pay claim.
1994, Thursday Death of the British politician John Smith and leader of the Labour Party.
1995, Friday Death of the English lawyer and political adviser Arnold Goodman.
1997, Monday Guinness and Grand Metropolitan two of Britain's leading drinks companies agreed to a 23 billion merger that would create the world's largest spirits group.

13th

1486, Saturday Humphrey Stafford was denied right of sanctuary because he was guilty of high treason, 1607.
1613, Thursday Mr Chamberlain reports on a serious case of embezzlement at the Tower and of two Kentish men being deprived of their ears and whipped through the streets.
1660, Sunday Mr Pepys witnessed the removal of the Irish Harp from the Union Jack.
1661, Monday Mr Evelyn witnessed the examinations at Westminster School.
1688, Wednesday Mr Evelyn reports that the massing of the Dutch Fleet has sent alarms through London.
1833, Monday First performance of Mendelssohn's Sympony No 4, the Italian with the composer conducting, in London.
1835, Wednesday Death of the English architect, Londoner John Nash.
1842, Friday Birth of the English composer, Londoner Sir Arthur Sullivan.
1850, Monday Birth of the English physicist, Londoner Oliver Heaviside.
1852, Thursday Death of the English optician, Londoner George Dollond.
1904, Friday The Anglo-Chinese Labour Convention was signed in London, and allowed the introduction of coolies to the colonies.
1907, Monday Birth of the English novelist, Londoner Daphne du Maurier.
1910, Friday Death of the English astronomer, Londoner Sir William Huggins.
1915, Thursday The names of emperors of Germany and Austria were struck off the roll of Knights of the Garter.
1939, Saturday The Government approved the merger between British Airways and Imperial Airways.
1945, Sunday Churchill announced that he would not allow totalitarian governments to replace German tyranny in liberated Europe.
1957, Monday Lord Ismay retired as NATO Secretary General.

14th

1619, Friday Mr Chamberlain describes the funeral of the Queen.
1625, Saturday Mr Chamberlain describes the King's funeral.
1660, Monday Mr Pepys arrived in Holland and has a very merry coach ride to the Hague in which he played his flageolet and had his rapier damaged.
1662, Wednesday Mr Evelyn is appointed as one of the commissioners to examine the layout of the buildings, streets etc. of the City and Westminster.
1675, Friday The Royal warrant for the rebuilding of St Paul's was issued to Christopher Wren.
1710, Sunday Death of the English mathematician Thomas Simpson.
1719, Thursday Handel is given a warrant by the Lord Chamberlain to go to Europe and make contracts with such singers as he thinks fit to sing on the English stage.
1723, Tuesday The first performance of Handel's Flavio at the King's Theatre Haymarket.
1796, Saturday English physician Edward Jenner administered the first vaccination against smallpox to an eight-year-old boy.
1832, Monday First performance of Mendelssohn's Hebrides Overture, conducted by composer from the manuscript at Covent Garden.
1841, Friday Birth of the English actor, Londoner Sir Squire Bancroft.
1842, Saturday The Illustrated London News was launched. This was the first fully illustrated weekly newspaper.
1861, Tuesday Operatic debut of Adelina Patti at Covent Garden, in Bellini's La Sonnambula.
1887, Saturday The People's Palace in Mile end Road was opened.
1897, Friday By treaty with Ethiopia Britain abandoned certain claims in Somaliland but Emperor Menelek refused to surrender his claims to lands near the Nile.
1921, Saturday The British Legion was founded by Earl Haig.
1923, Monday First performance of Gustav Holst's opera The Perfect Fool at Covent Garden.
1924, Wednesday The House of Lords discussed the introduction of driving tests to curb the rise in the number of road accidents.
1932, Saturday The first return mail arrived on the Imperial Airways' experimental service between Britain and Australia.
1936, Thursday The Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, attempted to bring Germany, Japan, and the U.S. into an international League.
1942, Thursday Women's war fashions now included 'bare legs for patriotism'.
1944, Sunday Intelligence officers decoded a cipher message from Goering, uncovering a campaign to trick Allied bombers into raiding inactive airfields.
1945, Monday Birth of the English actress, Londoner Francesca Annis.
1956, Monday In the House of Commons, the Labour party's censure motion against government policy in Cyprus was defeated.
1957, Tuesday Emergency petrol rationing which had been imposed the previous year was ended.
1961, Sunday The New English Bible was first published.
1974, Tuesday The last London appearance by Leopold Stokowski conducting the premier of Otto Klemperer's Merry Waltz with the New Philharmonia Orchestra.
1974, Tuesday Dr. Donald Coggan was named as the 101st Archbishop of Canterbury.
1980, Wednesday The Trades Union Council designated this day as a Day of Action aimed at the proposed reforms by the Thatcher Government.

Outside London

8th

1462, Saturday Death of Palla Strozzi, the founder of the first public library in Florence.
1582, Tuesday Birth of the English poet Phineas Fletcher.
1639, Wednesday Birth of the Italian painter Bacciccio.
1790, Saturday Following a motion by Talleyrand, the French National Assembly decided on the creation of a metric system.
1794, Friday The French chemist Antoine Lavoisier was guillotined.
1796, Sunday Birth of the French historian Fran ois Mignet.
1803, Sunday Death of the Italian poet Vittorio Alfieri.
1842, Sunday Birth of the Danish botanist Emil Christian Hansen Born who revolutionised beer-making.
1847, Saturday Birth of the German inventor, cigar maker, opera impresario, theater builder Oscar Hammerstein.
1858, Saturday Birth of the Italian composer Ruggiero Leoncavallo.
1859, Sunday Birth of the Danish mathematician Johan Ludwig Jensen.
1873, Thursday Birth of the English chemist Nevil Vincent Sidgwick.
1880, Saturday Death of the French novelist Gustave Flaubert.
1886, Saturday Coca Cola was first sold to the public.
1905, Monday Birth of the Polish mathematician Karol Borsuk.
1911, Monday The German zeppelin 'Deutschland' crashed during its first flight.
1919, Thursday Three U.S. Navy flying boats launch an attempt to make the first crossing of the Atlantic, in stages.
1923 Tuesday Birth of the Italian mathematician Dionisio Gallarati.
1930, Thursday Birth of the Irish soprano Heather Harper.
1935, Wednesday Birth of the English footballer Jack Charlton.
1936, Friday Death of the German philosopher Oswald Spengler.
1938, Sunday First performance of Stravinsky's Dumbarton Oaks concerto with Nadia Boulanger conducting in Washington, D.C.
1946, Wednesday Gian Carlo Menotti's opera The Medium premieres in New York.
1947, Thursday Birth of the English soprano Felicity Lott.
1951, Tuesday Death of the American mathematician Gilbert Bliss.
1951, Tuesday Dacron men's suits were introduced in New York City.
1953, Friday Death of the Lithuanian mathematician Benjamin Fedorovich Kagan.
1959, Friday Death of the Italian mathematician Renato Caccioppoli.
1963, Wednesday Death of the British comedian Max Miller [Thomas Sargent].
1980, Thursday The World Health Organization announced the world-wide eradication of smallpox.
1992, Friday The red tide in the Gulf of Mexico was explained.

9th

1386, Wednesday The Treaty of Windsor made a perpetual alliance between England and Portugal.
1525, Tuesday Probable date of birth of the Italian composer Giovanni Palestrina.
1657, Saturday Death of the English-born American colonist William Bradford.
1695, Thursday The Scottish Parliament met and set up an enquiry into the massacre of Glencoe.
1707, Friday Death of the Danish organist and composer Dietrich Buxtehude.
1741, Saturday Birth of the Italian composer Giovanni Paisiello.
1746, Friday Birth of the French mathematician Gaspard Monge.
1805, Thursday Death of the German romantic poet and playwright Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller.
1812, Saturday Rossini's La Scala di Seta premieres in Venice.
1845, Friday Birth of the Swedish inventor Carl Gustaf Patrik de Laval.
1850, Thursday Birth of the British-born American electrical engineer and industrialist Edward Weston.
1850, Thursday Death of the French physical chemist Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac.
1860, Wednesday Birth of the Scottish writer J M Barrie.
1865, Tuesday Birth of the Belgian composer August de Boeck.
1868, Saturday First performance of Anton Bruckner's First Symphony, in Linz with the composer conducting.
1873, Friday Birth of the British Egyptologist Howard Carter.
1876, Tuesday Birth of the American mathematician Gilbert Bliss.
1882, Tuesday The stethoscope was patented by William F. Ford.
1891, Saturday Death of Helena Blavatsky the Russian founder of the Theosophical Society.
1898, Monday Birth of the Dutch mathematician Arend Heyting.
1914, Saturday Birth of the Italian conductor Carlo Maria Giulini.
1914, Saturday Death of the French chemist Paul-Louis-Toussaint H roult.
1919, Friday Birth of the English actor Arthur English .
1920, Sunday Birth of the British novelist Richard Adams.
1927, Monday Birth of the German biochemist Manfred Eigen (Nobel 1967).
1930, Friday Birth of the English actress Joan Sims.
1931, Saturday Death of American physicist A.A. Michelson (Nobel 1907).
1932, Monday Birth of the English actress Geraldine McEwan.
1934, Wednesday Birth of the English playwright Alan Bennett.
1936, Saturday Birth of the English actress Glenda Jackson.
1936, Saturday Birth of the English actor Albert Finney.
1936, Saturday The Hindenburg zeppelin arrived in New Jersey beginning a regular commercial service across the Atlantic from Germany. The flight took 61-hours 38-minutes, carrying 51 passengers and 56 crew.
1940, Thursday The RAF began night bombing of Germany.
1942, Saturday Birth of the American baritone Richard Stilwell.
1947, Friday The World Bank opened in Washington DC.
1950, Tuesday Birth of the French pianist Michel Beroff.
1951, Wednesday Government agreed to pay new old age pension rates at 65 for men and 60 for women, not 70 and 65 as first planned.
1952, Friday Birth of the Scottish mezzo-soprano Linda Finnie.
1955, Monday Birth of the Swedish soprano Anne Sofie von Otter.
1962, Wednesday A laser beam was bounced off the moon from earth for the first time. The area of the light beam on the surface was estimated at a diameter of 4 miles.

10th

994, Thursday The Danes attacked and over-ran Anglesey.
1510, Friday Death of the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli.
1566, Friday Death of the German physician and botanist Leonhard Fuchs.
1696, Tuesday Death of the French writer Jean de la Bruy re.
1697, Monday Birth of the French composer Jean Marie Leclair.
1754, Friday Birth of the Scottish politician and agriculturalist Sir John Sinclair.
1760, Saturday Birth of the French composer Claude-Joseph Rouget de L'Isle.
1780, Wednesday Birth of the Italian soprano Angelica Catalani.
1788, Saturday Birth of the French physicist Augustin Fresnel.
1795, Sunday Birth of the French historian Augustin Thierry.
1805, Friday Birth of the German botanist Alexander Carl Heinrich Braun.
1822, Friday Death of the Italian mathematician Paolo Ruffini.
1830, Monday Birth of the French Chemist Fran ois-Marie Raoult.
1838, Thursday Birth of the British politician and diplomat James Bryce.
1847, Monday Birth of the German mathematician Wilhelm Killing.
1855, Thursday Birth of the Russian composer Anatole Liadov.
1857, Monday A revolt of Sepoys at Meerut began the Indian Mutiny against British rule.
1860, Thursday The discovery of the element caesium was announced by German chemists, Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchoff to the Berlin Academy of Scientists.
1891, Sunday Death of the Swiss botanist Karl Wilhelm von N geli.
1899, Wednesday Birth of the American dancer and film actor Fred Astaire.
1902, Saturday Birth of the American film producer David O Selznick.
1904, Tuesday Birth of the American mathematician Edward McShane.
1910, Tuesday Death of the Italian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro.
1914, Monday Birth of the English tenor Richard Lewis.
1916, Wednesday Ernest Shackleton and companions reached South Georgia after sailing 1300 km/800 miles in 16 days in an open boat to seek help for the members of their party marooned on Elephant Island Antarctica.
1919, Saturday Birth of the Swiss conductor Peter Magg.
1920, Monday Death of the American inventor and discoverer of celluloid John Wesley Hyatt.
1929, Friday The first submarine "lung" was tested.
1938, Tuesday Birth of the Russian conductor and pianist Maxim Shostakovich.
1941, Saturday Death of the Dutch mathematician Diederik Korteweg.
1946, Friday Birth of the English actress Maureen Lipman.
1959, Sunday Italian archeologists discover the ruins of Nero's gardens in Rome.
1963, Friday The European Free Trade Association agreed on the abolition of all inter-European tariffs by 1966.
1977, Tuesday Death of the American film actress Joan Crawford.
1995, Wednesday Michael Ancram the government minister for Northern Ireland met with representatives of Sinn Fein in Belfast The first public meeting between a government minister and Sinn Fein since 1973.
1998, Sunday At a party conference in Dublin, Sinn Fein voted to accept the Good Friday peace agreement and participate in a future Northern Ireland assembly.

11th

973, Sunday Edgar the Peaceful was crowned at Bath as King of all England; he then went to Chester where eight Scottish and Welsh kings rowed him on the Dee.
1610, Friday Death, in Peking, of the Italian missionary mathematician and astronomer Fr. Matteo Ricci SJ.
1686, Tuesday Death of the German physicist Otto von Guericke.
1791, Wednesday Birth of Bohemian composer Jan Vaclav Hugo Vorisek.
1803, Wednesday Birth of the French composer Hector Berlioz.
1811, Saturday The original Siamese twins, Chang and Eng, were born to Chinese parents in Siam (Thailand). They emigrated to the U.S., where they adopted Bunker as their surname.
1824, Tuesday British forces took Rangoon, in Burma.
1854, Thursday Birth of Ottmar Mergenthaler the German inventor of linotype.
1881, Wednesday Birth of the Hungarian mathematician Theodore Von K rm n.
1884, Sunday Birth of Romanian soprano Alma Gluck.
1887, Wednesday Birth of the American mathematician Griffith Evans.
1888, Friday Birth of the American composer Irving Berlin.
1894, Friday Birth of the American dance choreographer Martha Graham.
1902, Sunday Birth of the Brazilian soprano Bidu Sayao.
1905, Thursday In New York the opera singer Wallace MacCreery committed suicide.
1905, Thursday Birth of the Russian novelist Mikhail Sholokhov.
1912, Saturday Birth of the Russian mathematician Sergei Nikolaevich Chernikov.
1912, Saturday Birth of the American actor Phil Silvers.
1916, Thursday Einstein's Theory of General Relativity was presented in the Journal Annalen der Physik .
1916, Thursday Death of German composer Max Reger.
1916, Thursday Death of the German mathematician Karl Schwarzschild.
1918, Saturday Birth of the American physicist Richard Feynman.
1924, Sunday Birth of the English astrophysicist Antony Hewish (Nobel 1974).
1924, Sunday Birth of the Russian mathematician Evgenii Dynkin.
1931, Monday Birth of the Australian Media tycoon Rupert Murdoch.
1945, Friday Birth of the New Zealand cellist and conductor Ross Pople.
1949, Wednesday Birth of the American soprano Ruth Welting.
1949, Wednesday The first Polaroid camera was sold for $89.95 in New York City.
1950, Thursday Birth of the English television broadcaster Jeremy Paxman.
1954, Wednesday Birth of the Scottish composer Judith Weir.
1955, Thursday Death of the Russian mathematician Nikolai Krylov.
1956, Friday Death of the American astronomer Walter Adams.
1960, Wednesday The France, the worlds longest ocean liner, was launched.
1981, Monday Death of the Norwegian physical chemist Odd Hassel (Nobel 1969).
1988, Wednesday Death of the Indian-born Soviet spy Kim Philby.
1997, Sunday The IBM supercomputer Deep Blue trounced the world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 19 moves.

12th

1003, Wednesday Death of the French mathematician and astronomer Gerbert d'Aurillac who became Pope Sylvester II in 999.
1567, Monday Birth of the Italian composer Claudio Monteverdi.
1619, Wednesday Death of the Italian mathematician Michelangelo Ricci.
1684, Monday Death of the French physicist Edme Mariotte.
1688, Saturday Birth of the French astronomer Joseph Nicolas Delisle.
1700, Sunday Birth of the Italian architect Luigi Vanvitelli.
1739, Saturday Birth of the Czech composer Jan Vanhall.
1742, Wednesday Death of the French mathematician Privat de Moli res.
1754, Sunday Birth of the German composer Franz Anton Hoffmeister.
1755, Monday Birth of the Italian violinist and composer Giovanni Viotti.
1755, Monday Haydn, in a state of misery, conducted his own works as the woman he loved, Therese Keller, took her vows as a nun.
1759, Saturday Birth of the French composer and organist Francois Couperin.
1784, Wednesday Death of the Swiss naturalist Abraham Trembley.
1803, Thursday Birth of the German chemist Justus von Liebig.
1809, Friday Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, defeated the French under Soult at Oporto and forced them to retreat from Portugal.
1814, Thursday Birth of the Bavarian pianist and composer Adolf von Henselt.
1820, Friday Birth of the English nursing pioneer Florence Nightingale.
1832, Saturday Donizetti's L'Elisir d'Amore premieres in Milan.
1842, Thursday Birth of the French composer Jules Massenet.
1845, Monday Birth of the French mathematician Henri Brocard.
1845, Monday Birth of the French composer Gabriel Faure.
1851, Monday Birth of the Polish mathematician Samuel Dickstein.
1856, Monday Birth of the German botanist Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper.
1856, Monday Death of the French mathematician Jacques Binet.
1857, Tuesday Birth of the German mathematician Oskar Bolza.
1857, Tuesday Birth of the American soprano Lillian Nordica.
1863, Tuesday Birth of the French composer Charles Bordes.
1871, Friday Death of the French chemist Anselme Payen.
1874, Tuesday The prolific black American inventor patented an ironing board (table). McCoy is so well-known for useful inventions that his name is used in the expression"the real McCoy." It was first applied to his effective lubricating devices for steam engines for which he held numerous patents.
1880, Wednesday Birth of the American explorer Lincoln Ellsworth.
1884, Monday Death of the French organic chemist Charles-Adolphe Wurtz.
1884, Monday Death of Bohemian composer Bedrich Smetana.
1887, Thursday Death of the French chemist Jean-Baptiste Boussingault.
1888, Saturday Birth of the Italian baritone Mariano Stabile.
1895 Sunday Birth of the Canadian physical chemist William Francis Giauque (Nobel 1949).
1901, Sunday Birth of the English engineer Baron Christopher Hinton (of Bankside).
1902, Monday Birth of the English statistician Frank Yates.
1903, Tuesday Birth of the English composer Lennox Berkeley.
1906, Saturday Birth of the American geophysicist Maurice Ewing.
1907, Sunday Birth of the Singaporean mystery writer Leslie Charteris [Leslie Charles Bowyer Yin].
1910, Thursday Birth of the Italian contralto Giulietta Simionato.
1910, Thursday Birth of the English chemist Dorothy Hodgkin (Nobel 1964).
1926, Wednesday First performance of Shostakovich's First Symphony in Leningrad with Nicolai Malko conducting.
1931, Tuesday Death of the Belgian violinist Eugene Ysaye.
1936, Tuesday The Dvorak typewriter keyboard was patented in the U.S.
1941, Monday Birth of the American harpsichordist and organist Anthony Newman.
1945, Saturday Birth of the Spanish tenor Dalmacio Gonzales.
1948, Wednesday Birth of the German mezzo-soprano Doris Soffel.
1957, Sunday Death of the Austrian silent-film actor and director Erich von Stroheim.
1994, Thursday Death of Roy Plunkett, the American inventor of Teflon.

13th

1265, Wednesday Birth of the Italian poet Dante Alighieri.
1607, Wednesday Riots took place in Northamptonshire and other Midland counties of England in protest at widespread enclosure of common land.
1637 Saturday The table knife was created by Cardinal Richelieu in France. Until this time, daggers were used to cut meat, as well as to pick one's teeth. Richelieu had the points rounded off all of the knives to be used at his table1643 England.
1643, Saturday Oliver Cromwell defeated the Royalists at Grantham.
1750, Sunday Birth of the Italian mathematician Lorenzo Mascheroni.
1753, Sunday Birth of the French mathematician and revolutionary leader Lazare Carnot.
1775, Saturday Birth of the British diarist and journalist Henry Crabb Robinson.
1775, Saturday Death of the French mathematician Christian Kramp.
1832, Sunday Death of the French zoologist Georges Cuvier.
1840, Wednesday Birth of the French novelist Alphonse Daudet.
1854, Saturday Birth of the French zoologist Yves Delage.
1857, Wednesday Birth of the British bacteriologist Ronald Ross (Nobel 1902).
1866, Sunday Death of the Czech mathematician Nikolai Brashman.
1866, Sunday Birth of the Hungarian violinist Ottokar Novacek.
1873, Tuesday Ludwig M. Wolf of Avon, Connecticut, patented the sewing machine lamp holder. It was introduced by the Singer Sewing Machine Co. in 1876, to meet the need of those who wished to sew at night, because the lamp would not "jar off the table or upset," and it could be moved "without soiling the fingers.".
1877, Sunday First performance of Franck's Les Eolides at a Lamoureux Concert in Paris.
1878, Monday Death of the American scientist Joseph Henry.
1885, Wednesday Death of the German pathologist Friedrich Gustav Jacob Henle.
1890, Tuesday Nikola Tesla was issued a U.S. patent for an electric generator.
1901, Monday Lord Salisbury noted that the South African campaign was conclusive proof of England's formidable military strength.
1907, Monday Death of the inventor of the weather map, British meteorologist Alexander Buchan.
1913, Tuesday The first four-engine airplane was built and flown by Igor Sikorsky of Russia.
1913, Tuesday Birth of the Romanian conductor Constantin Silvestri.
1919, Wednesday Death of the German mathematician Eugen Netto.
1920, Friday In Manchester, a Dental conference suggested that sugar was the prime cause of tooth decay, and recommended dry champagne as a mouth wash.
1920, Friday Birth of the English flautist Gareth Morris.
1930, Tuesday Death of the Norwegian explorer, oceanographer, statesman, and humanitarian Fridtjof Nansen (Nobel (Peace) 1922).
1935, Monday T.E. Lawrence was seriously ill after a motorcycle accident in Dorset.
1939, Saturday Death of the Russian mathematician Stanislaw Leshniewski.
1940, Monday Birth of the British travel writer and novelist (Charles) Bruce Chatwin.
1942, Thursday The Government postponed plans for fuel rationing after widespread opposition.
1944, Saturday Death of the English mathematician William Berwick.
1944, Saturday Birth of the American novelist Armistead Maupin [Armistead Jones].
1949, Saturday Birth of the English conductor Jane Glover.
1949, Saturday The first British jet bomber, the A1, made its maiden flight.
1957, Monday Birth of the English organist and conductor David Hill.
1958, Tuesday The Velcro trademark was registered for a fabric hook and loop fastener.
1961, Saturday Death of the American film actor Gary Cooper.
1962, Sunday Death of the American Expressionist painter Franz Kline.
1965, Friday Birth of the English violinist Tasmin Little.
1981, Wednesday A gunman seriously wounded Pope John Paul II in an assassination attempt in St Peter's Square.

14th

1080, Thursday 1080 Walcher Bishop of Durham and Earl of Northumberland was murdered. In revenge, William the Conqueror ravaged the area and took the opportunity to invade Scotland and build the castle at Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
1264, Wednesday The English barons under Simon de Montfort defeated Henry III at the Battle of Lewes.
1565, Monday Death of the French diplomat and bibliophile Jean Grolier.
1686, Friday Birth of the German physicist Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit the first to use mercury in thermometers.
1727, Sunday Birth of the English artist Thomas Gainsborough.
1734, Tuesday Death of the German physician and scientist Georg Ernst Stahl.
1748, Tuesday First performance of Gluck's opera Semiramide Riconosciuta for the reopening of the Burgtheater in Vienna.
1771, Sunday Birth of the Welsh social reformer Robert Owen.
1797, Sunday Death of the Italian mathematician Giovanni Fagnano.
1805, Tuesday Birth of the Danish composer Johann Peter Emilius Hartmann.
1832, Monday Birth of the German mathematician Rudolf Lipschitz.
1847, Friday Death of the pianist Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel.
1853, Thursday Birth of the English novelist Sir Thomas Hall Caine.
1862, Wednesday The Swiss watchmaker Adolphe Nicole patented the chronograph, which was able to give split-second timing of sports events.
1869, Friday Birth of the Polish composer Sigismond Stojowski.
1871, Sunday Death of the French composer Daniel Auber.
1872, Tuesday Birth of the Russian botanist Mikhail Semyonovich Tswett.
1873, Wednesday Birth of the Russian composer Nicholas Tcherepnin.
1878, Tuesday The name Vaseline was registered as a trademark for the petroleum jelly developed by an English chemist Robert Augustus Chesebrough.
1885, Thursday Birth of the German conductor Otto Klemperer.
1887, Saturday Death of the Prussian mathematician Johann Rosenhain.
1893, Sunday Death of the German mathematician Eduard Kummer.
1899, Sunday Death of the Swedish chemist Lars Frederik Nilson.
1909, Friday Death of the Italian mathematician Giovanni Vailati.
1912, Tuesday Death of the Swedish playwright August Strindberg.
1919, Wednesday Death of the American businessman and canned food magnate, Henry John Heinz.
1925, Thursday Death of the English novelist Sir Henry Rider Haggard.
1925, Thursday Birth of the American soprano Patrice Munsel.
1926, Friday Birth of the English comedian Eric Morecambe.
1931, Thursday Birth of the German pianist Aloys Kontarsky.
1934, Monday Birth of the Welsh actress Sian Phillips.
1938, Saturday Operatic debut of American tenor Jan Peerce in Rigoletto, in Philadelphia.
1939, Sunday Birth of the American Mezzo-Soprano Joann Grillo.
1940, Tuesday Birth of the British yachtsman Chay Blyth.
1948, Friday Following the end of the British mandate in Palestine, a Jewish provisional government was formed in Israel.
1950, Sunday Birth of the French pianist Maria de La Pau.
1951, Monday Birth of the Welsh soprano Helen Field.
1953, Thursday British experts declared that jet plane flights will damage eardrums and wreck houses.
1954, Friday In Seattle, Boeing displayed the first prototype of the 707 jetliner.
1960, Saturday Death of Spanish Soprano Lucrezia Bori.
1969, Wednesday Death of the Polish mathematician Waclaw Sierpinski.
1972, Sunday The Ulster Defence Association set up the first Protestant 'no go' areas in Belfast.
1973, Monday The United States launched the Skylab 1 space station.
1979, Monday Death of the Welsh novelist Jean Rhys.
1983, Saturday Death of the American physical chemist John Chipman.
1986, Wednesday British shipbuilders announced major staff cutbacks.
1992, Thursday For the first time, three astronauts, from the space shuttle Endeavour, go out into space simultaneously to retrieve and repair Intelsat-6.
1995, Sunday Death of the American biochemist Christian Boehmer Anfinsen (Nobel 1972).
1998, Thursday Death of the American vocalist Frank Sinatra.

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