This page provides daily updates on past events and anniversaries during the Third week of January. The events included are those that either happened in London or had an effect, one way or another, on the lives of Londoners.
Daily updates on Events during the Third week
Below are the events and anniversaries for this week both about London and Londoners and Outside London.
The archive for these pages has been arranged in a series of monthly Digests. To speed up navigation, these have been further divided into four weekly instalments. These pages are all comprehensively interlinked.
Each Section has its own background page which provides additional and in-depth information about many of the events and people in the daily listings. They are intended to both amuse and inform and can be found at Gazette Briefings and Historical Anecdotes .
Links to the anniversaries and events in the other weeks of the month are given in the following table whilst links to the other months of the year can be found at the bottom of the page.
1535, Friday January 15, Henry VIII assumed the title "Supreme Head of the Church" and instructed the English clergy to abjure the authority of the Pope.
1559, Sunday January 15, The coronation of Elizabeth I at Westminster. The day had been chosen as auspicious by the court mathematician and astronomer Dr Dee.
1752, Wednesday January 15, Tobias Smollett published apamphlet accusing Henry Fielding of plagiarism.
1759, Monday January 15, The British Museum first opened, at Montague House, Bloomsbury.
1797, Sunday January 15, London haberdasher James Hetherington was fined 50 for wearing his new creation, the top hat.
1859, Saturday January 15, The National Portrait Gallery opened to the public in Great George Street. There were only 56 portraits and viewing was by appointment on Wednesdays and Saturdays.
1867, Tuesday January 15, The ice on the Regent's Park Lake collapsed and 200 people were thrown into the freezing water. Forty were drowned.
1880, Thursday January 15, The London Telephone Company published Britain's first telephone directory, listing 255 names.
1889, Wednesday January 15, The first elections to the newly created London County Council were held.
1900, Monday January 15, The London Hippodrome in Charing Cross Road was opened as a circus and variety theatre. It has been a night club since 1958.
1540, Friday January 16, Westminster Abbey was suppressed. The Dean and 24 monks were made to sign a deed of surrender to the king's agents.
1572, Thursday January 16, The Duke of Norfolk was tried for treason on charges of complicity in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England.
1581, Monday January 16, Parliament passed the anti-Catholic laws.
1599, Tuesday January 16, Edmund Spenser was buried in Westminster. The leading poets of the day (but apparently not including Shakespeare) cast their memorials into the grave.
1697, Saturday January 16, Birth of the poet Richard Savage.
1756, Friday January 16, England and Prussia signed the Treaty of Westminster.
1794, Thursday January 16, Death of the historian Edward Gibbon.
1839, Wednesday January 16, A meeting at the Gatehouse Tavern in Highgate resolved to form an establishment "to excite and cultivate an intelligent interest in the objects of Literature and Science. This led to the Highgate Institution which still survives.
1913, Thursday January 16, The House of Commons votes to accept Irish Home Rule.
1982, Saturday January 16, Britain and the Vatican resumed full diplomatic relations after a break of exactly 447 years.
1382, Friday January 17, A council of bishops gathered at Blackfriars monastery to condemn John Wyclif. As they deliberated an Earthquake struck the city and the bishops hastily vacated the building. Unable to decide whether the earthquake was a sign of God's displeasure with their proceedings or Wyclife's teachings they steered a middle course and referred the matter back to the king.
1574, Sunday January 17, Birth of the physician and mystic Robert Fludd.
1612, Friday January 17, Birth of Lord Thomas Fairfax, General in the Parliamentary army.
1775, Tuesday January 17, Sheridan's The Rivals premiered in London. It was a flop and had to be withdrawn and re-written.
1814, Saturday January 17, Birth of the writer Ellen Wood.
1820, Monday January 17, Birth of the novelist Anne Bronte.
1827, Wednesday January 17, The Duke of Wellington was appointed Supreme Commander of the British Forces.
1852, Saturday January 17, The independence of the Transvaal Boers was recognized by Britain.
1863, Saturday January 17, Birth of the statesman David Lloyd George.
1888, Wednesday January 17, The Star was launched. It merged with the Evening News in 1960.
1899, Tuesday January 17, Birth of the novelist Nevil Shute.
1902, Wednesday January 17, The Times Literary Supplement was launched.
1903, Saturday January 17, Death of the merchant and philanthropist Quintin Hogg, at The Polytechnic, which he had founded in Marylebone.
1997, Friday January 17, An Old Bailey jury decided that Szymon Serafinowicz, the first person charged with Nazi crimes under Britain's War Crimes Act, was unfit to stand trial due to his failing health.
1486, Wednesday January 18, Henry VII married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, thus sealing the end of The Wars of the Roses.
1548, Wednesday January 18, Hugh Latimer preached the Sermon of the Plough at St. Paul's.
1602, Monday January 18, The first quarto of the Merry Wives of Windsor was entered in the Stationers' Register. It was published by Creede for Ben Jonson.
1671, Wednesday January 18, The Diarist John evelyn brought the young Grinling Gibbons to the attention of Charles II.
1882, Wednesday January 18, Birth of the author A A Milne in St John's Wood.
1954, Monday January 18, Death of the actor Sydney Greenstreet.
1963, Friday January 18, Death of the statesman Hugh Gaitskell.
1980, Friday January 18, Death of the photographer and designer Cecil Beaton.
1993, Tuesday January 18, Death of the historical novelist Jean Plaidy.
1547, Wednesday January 19, The 29 year old army commander and poet Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, condemned on the 13th, was beheaded on Tower Hill.
1649, Friday 19 January, The Puritan parliament began the trial of Charles I for treason.
1661, Saturday January 19, Thomas Venner, leader of the Fifth Monarchy Men was hanged, drawn and quartered in Coleman Street, from where the insurrection had set out.
1670, Friday January 21, The highwayman Claude Duval was executed at Tyburn in front of a large and sympathetic crowd. His body was cut down and laid in state in a tavern in St Giles' before burial in the centre aisle of St Paul's Covent Garden.
1714, Tuesday January 19, Richard Steele published The Crisis, defending the Hanoverian succession.
1729, Sunday January 19, Death of the dramatist William Congreve.
1764, Thursday January 19, John Wilkes was expelled from the House of Commons for seditious libel.
1903, Sunday January 19, 1st regular transatlantic radio broadcast between US & England.
1904, Tuesday January 19, A new concert hall, the Aeolian Hall, opened in New Bond Street. It was taken over by the BBC in 1941 and used by them until 1975.
1917, Friday January 19, An ammunition factory at Silvertown exploded killing 73 and seriously injuring 94 people.
1927, Wednesday January 19, The British government decided to send troops to China.
1942, Monday January 19, Birth of the actor Michael Crawford.
1966, Wednesday January 19, Tippett's cantata Vision of St Augustine premiered in London.
1973, Friday January 19, Death of the actor Max Adrian.
1265, Tuesday January 20, The first English parliament met in Westminster Hall, convened by Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester.
1327, Tuesday January 20, Edward II was deposed and succeeded by his eldest son, Edward III.
1569, Friday January 20, Death of the bible translator Miles Coverdale.
1783, Monday January 20, Britain signed a peace agreement with France and Spain, who had allied against her in the American War of Independence.
1837, Friday January 20, Death of the architect John Soane.
1850, Saturday January 20, The Penny Savings Bank, to encourage thrift amongst the poor, opened on Commercial Street. By September the number of depositors had risen to 7,853.
1882, Friday January 20, Death of the painter/miniaturist/engraver John Linnel.
1900, Saturday January 20, Death of the novelist R D Blackmore.
1900, Saturday January 20, Death of the art critic and writer John Ruskin.
1912, Saturday January 20, Birth of the actor Christopher Casson.
1922, Friday January 20, Birth of the industrialist Lord James Hanson.
1934, Saturday January 20, Birth of the actor Tom Baker.
1936, Monday January 20, Death of George V.
1936, Monday January 20, Accession of Edward VIII.
1986, Monday January 20, The decision to construct the channel tunnel was announced.
1189, Saturday January 21, Henry II, prince Richard and Philip II of France agree to undertake the third Crusade.
1542, Saturday January 21, Parliament passed bill of attainder against Queen Katherine Howard.
1549, Monday January 21, Parliament passed the first of four Acts of Uniformity, this first requiring the exclusive use of the Book of Common Prayer in all public services of the Anglican Church.
1626, Saturday January 21, Death of the musician John Dowland.
1683, Sunday January 21, Death of the 1st Earl of Shaftesbury Anthony Ashley Cooper.
1799, Monday January 21, Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccination was introduced.
1846, Monday January 21, The first issue of the Daily News, edited by Charles Dickens, was published.
1910, Friday January 21, Birth of the financier/Schweppes magnate Lord Cayzer.
1922, Saturday January 21, Birth of the actor Paul Scofield.
1930, Tuesday January 21, An international arms control meeting opened in London.
1932, Thursday January 21, Death of the critic and biographer Lytton Strachey.
1933, Saturday January 21, Birth of the trades union leader Norman Willis.
1941, Tuesday January 21, The British communist newspaper, the Daily Worker, was banned due to wartime restrictions.
1943, Thursday January 21, A Nazi daylight air raid killed 34 people in a London school.
1950, Saturday January 21, Death of the novelist George Orwell.
1954, Thursday January 21, The world's first nuclear submarine, the USS Nautilus, was launched on the Thames and christened by American First Lady Mamie Eisenhower.
1976, Wednesday January 21, Concorde inaugurated its commercial service with simultaneous take-offs, from Paris to Rio de Janeiro and from London to Bahrain.
1622, Tuesday 15 January, Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, "Moli re," was baptised.
1879, Wednesday January 15, Gilbert and Sullivan's HMS Pinafore had its first performance in New York. This was the first of many pirated versions of the work.
1893, Sunday January 15, Birth of the songwriter Ivor Novello.
1914, Thursday January 15, Birth of the historian Lord Dacre of Glanton.
1922, Sunday January 15, Michael Collins became the first prime minister of the Irish Free State.
1990, Monday January 15, Death of the actor Gordon Jackson.
1995, Sunday January 15, The government announced the end of 25 years of daylight patrols by the British army on the streets of Belfast.
1920, Friday January 16, The first Assembly of the League of Nations takes place in Paris.
1957, Wednesday January 16, Death of the conductor Arturo Toscanini.
1909, Thursday January 16, The Irish explorer Ernest Shackleton found the magnetic south pole.
1706, Thursday 17 January, Birth of the US scientist and diplomat Benjamin Franklin, in Boston.
1773, Sunday January 17, Captain Cook's Resolution became the first ship to cross the Antarctic Circle.
1911, Tuesday January 17, Death of the anthropologist and explorer Francis Galton.
1912, Wednesday January 17, Scott reached the South Pole one month after Amundsen.
1926, Sunday January 17, Birth of the ballerina Moira Shearer.
1964, Friday January 17, Death of the writer T H White.
1990, Wednesday January 17, Death of the artist Ruskin Spear.
1689, Friday 18 January, Birth of the French philosopher Charles de Montesquieu.
1778, Sunday January 18, Captain Cook discovers the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii).
1779, Monday January 18, Birth of the lexicographer Peter Mark Roget.
1840, Monday January 18, Birth of the poet/critic/biographer Austin Dobson.
1850, Friday January 18, British ships blockade the Greek port of Pir us to enforce mercantile claims.
1919, Saturday January 18, The Versailles Peace Conference opened.
1933, Wednesday January 18, Birth of the botanist David Bellamy.
1936, Saturday January 18, Death of the author Rudyard Kipling.
1976, Sunday January 18, Labour MPs Jim Sillars and John Robertson launched the Scottish Labour Party (SLP) to campaign for greater devolution for Scotland.
1978, Wednesday January 18, The European Court of Human Rights cleared the British government of torture but found it guilty of inhuman and degrading treatment of prisoners in Northern Ireland.
1419, Thursday January 19, Rouen surrendered to Henry V thereby completing his conquest of Normandy.
1736, Monday January 19, Birth of the inventor James Watt.
1746, Sunday January 19, Bonnie Prince Charlie's troops occupied Stirling.
1798, Friday January 19, Birth of the philosopher Auguste Comte.
1829, Monday January 19, The first performance of Goethe's Faust, Part 1.
1839, Thursday January 19, Birth of the impressionist painter Paul C zanne.
1839, Thursday January 19, Aden was conquered by British East India Company.
1853, Monday January 19, Verdi's opera Il Trovatore was first staged in Rome.
1884, Thursday January 19, Jules Massenet's opera Manon premiered in Paris.
1915, Tuesday January 19, The Frenchman Georges Claude patented the neon tube sign. He had invented the neon light in 1910.
1915, Monday January 19, More than 20 people were killed when German zeppelins bombed England for the first time; the bombs were dropped on Great Yarmouth and King's Lynn.
1922, Thursday January 19, Birth of the film director Ken Hughes.
1944, Wednesday January 19, Birth of the anthropologist Richard Leakey.
1955, Wednesday January 19, Birth of the conductor Simon Rattle.
1763, Thursday January 20, Birth of the Irish patriot Theobald Wolfe Tone.
1841, Wednesday January 20, Hong Kong was ceded by to Britain China.
1886, Wednesday January 20, The Mersey Railway Tunnel was officially opened by the Prince of Wales.
1910, Thursday January 20, Birth of the naturalist and author Joy Adamson.
1920, Tuesday January 20, Birth of the film director Federico Fellini.
1921, Thursday January 20, British submarine K5 was lost on exercises off Ushant.
1942, Tuesday January 20, At the Wannsee Conference in Berlin, German Nazi officials decided on their "final solution," which called for a mass extermination of all the Jews in Europe.
1944, Thursday January 20, The RAF dropped 2,300 tons of bombs on Berlin.
1948, Tuesday January 20, Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated.
1952, Sunday January 20, The British army occupied Ismailiya in the Suez Canal Zone.
1961, Friday January 20, Arthur M Ramsay became the 100th archbishop of Canterbury.
1790, Thursday January 21, In Paris, Joseph Guillotine proposed a more humane method of execution: a machine designed to cut off the condemned person's head as painlessly as possible.
1665, Saturday January 21, Death of the mathematician Pierre de Fermat.
1840, Tuesday January 21, Birth of the pioneer woman physician Sophia Louisa Jex-Blake.
1848, Wednesday January 21, Birth of the composer Henri Duparc.
1851, Tuesday January 21, Death of the composer Gustav Albert Lortzing.
1879, Tuesday January 21, Henrik Ibsen's "Et Dukkehjem" premiered in Copenhagen.
1892, Thursday January 21, Death of the astronomer and co-discoverer of Neptune, John Couch Adams.
1904, Thursday January 21, Leos Janacek's opera "Jenufa" premiered in Brno Czechoslovakia.
1905, Saturday January 21, Birth of the couturier Christian Dior.
1919, Tuesday January 21, Sinn F in MPs elected to the Westminster parliament met in Dublin and established an Irish parliament (D il Eireann)with amon de Valera as president.
1924, Monday January 21, Birth of the comedian Benny Hill.
1941, Tuesday January 21, Birth of the tenor Placido Domingo.
1948, Wednesday January 21, Death of the composer Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari.
1979, Sunday January 21, Neptune became the outermost planet as Pluto moved closer to the sun