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ENGLAND
Samuel Pepys
Elizabeth I
London's Underworld
Fleet Marriages.
The Cries of London
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A choirboy from Worcester Cathedral was sent to London to audition for Mr Handel who was well known as a good judge of voice. The Boy sang. "Is this how you praise God in Worcester"?, Handel asked. "Yes Mr Handel", replied the boy. "God is Good", Handel replied, "and no doubt he will hear your praises in Worcester, but no man will hear them in London

-- George Frederik Handel



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The Thirteenth Century: Henry III
Posted on Dec 13, 2002 - 10:50 AM by Bill McCann

This series of articles presents a basic chronology of London but will also contain references to national events where these are important in the development of the London area. Wherever possible, the precise dates and days of the week on which the events here recorded took place are noted. The series is an organic one and will change frequently as new events or dates are extracted from our sources.





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The Thirteenth Century: Henry III

Henry III Enthroned

Year
Month/Day
Event
1216Friday 28 OctoberNine year old Henry III was crowned at Gloucester because the Londoners remained loyal to Prince Louis.
1216Saturday 12 NovemberThe King's council led by the papal legate and William de Marechal, who was appointed Rector of the kingdom, met at Bristol. They issued the Magna Carta of liberties. The attaching of the baronial seals and those of the legate and Rector gave the document the character of a Coronation Charter.
1217-The church of St Martin Outwich was first mentioned in this year.
1217-In the battle of Lincoln Louis was heavily defeated. Robert FitzWalter and Richard de Mountfichet were both captured. French ships were intercepted in the channel. London was invested and starvation threatened
1217Friday February 18Death of the English encyclopaedist Alexander Neckum of Saint Albans.
1217Monday 11 SeptemberA peace conference opened on an island in the Thames near Kingston.
1217Tuesday 12 SeptemberIn return for a substantial payment prince Louis of France signed a peace treaty and left England. Henry III swore to restore to the barons and people the liberties that his father had neglected. London was pardoned for supporting Louis.
1217Sunday 2 NovemberThe Exchequer was re opened and a Great Seal was made for the new king.
1218-The justices of a general eyre began their circuits.
1219-The church of St Michael paternoster Royal was first mentioned in this year.
1219MayWilliam de Marechal died at Caversham and was buried in the church of the New Temple.
1219-The market of Barking, which belonged to the abbess of Barking abbey, was first mentioned in this year.
1220-The Tower was extended and fortified. The Blundeville (later Wakefield) Tower was built and the church of St Peter ad Vincula was brought within its walls.
1220Saturday May 16Henry III laid the foundation stone of a new Lady Chapel at Westminster Abbey, thus beginning the new abbey-church which was completed in 1245.
1220Sunday May 17The formal coronation of Henry III took place at Westminster.
1221-The new steeple of St Paul's was completed. It replaced that destroyed by the fire of 1087.
1221Friday August 6Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, welcomed a party of 13 Black Friars to England. They establish their first London house south of Holborn Bridge on a site donated by Hubert de Burgh which was confirmed by John Bokointe in 1224.
1222-Use of stone in repairing Fleet prison was mentioned, the services of a mason being expressly mentioned.
1222-A long dispute between the Bishop of London and the abbot of Westminster was finally settled in this year. A decree fixed the boundaries of Westminster more exactly and, as a result, St Clement Danes became a separate parish and the ward of Farringdon Without was officially made part of the City. The same judgement also made the first reference to the chapel which eventually became the church of St Martin in the Fields. It was excluded from the parish of St Margaret Westminster and remained under the direct control of the Abbey.
1222Monday July 25There were Riots in London in which the mob raised the cry "Louis of France." The leader, Constantine FitzAthulf was executed by the City Justiciar Hubert de Burgh who had been custodian of the Duke Arthur. This act earned him the undying hatred of the Londoners.
1223-Pope Honorius issued letters declaring that Henry was sufficiently mature in mind and character to have control of his seal and the "free and quiet" disposal of his kingdom.
1223-In this year was the first reference to the parish church of St Faith's by St Paul's.
1224-Nine Franciscan friars, sent by Francis of Assisi reached England this year. Five of them remained in Canterbury and four came to London. They lodged first at Holborn and then in a house in Cornhill.
1225-The Franciscans who had arrived in the previous year were granted land in Newgate Street in order to build a friary. This became Greyfriars.
1225-The Law Courts, which often moved with the king, became fixed in Westminster in this year.
1225Wednesday February 11Henry III reissued the final versions of the Magna Carta and the Charter of the Forests.
1226-The bishop of Chichester, Ralph Nevill established his London residence in what is now Chancery Lane.
1226Saturday October 3Death of the Italian founder of the Franciscan order St Francis of Assisi
1227-What is now Fleet Street was mentioned as In vico de Fletebridge.
1228-Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, died and was succeeded by Richard Grant.
1229-A grant of 5 was made for repair of the Fleet Prison.
1230-The Hospital of St Mary Rouncevale was established by the Augustinians at Charing Cross as a refuge for pilgrims visiting the shrine of Edward the Confessor.
1231-A market was granted to the lord of the manor at Isleworth this year.
1231-Richard Grant, Archbishop of Canterbury, died in Italy and was eventually succeeded by Edmund of Abingdon.
1232-The Carthusians established a house for Jewish converts to Christianity which was called the Domus Conversorum. It was on the site of what is now the Public Record Office in Chancery Lane.
1232-Hubert de Burgh had lost the trust of Henry who let it be known that he was willing to listen to complaints about the Justiciar of London. Hubert fled to Merton priory claiming sanctuary. Henry urged London to send men to get him out dead or alive. A large contingent descended on Merton but Henry relented and allowed Hubert to surrender of his own accord before they could get their hands on him.
1233-The Fraternity of Clerks (later the Company of Parish Clerks) was established in this year according to their own tradition.
1233JuneGeneral discontent with the manner in which the king's council conducts its business. The disseisin of Gilbert of Basset of a manor in Wiltshire is opposed by many, including Richard the marshal. Sporadic and widespread violence lead the Whitsun council to issue the first Writ of Watch and Ward.
1233AugustHenry III recruited Flemish knights and men at arms who arrived in England in the middle of the month. The king renounced his feudal obligations to the marshal and laid siege to his castle at Usk. A state of war now prevailed in England and the Marches.
1233-Richard the marshal agreed to surrender his castle in token of submission, to receive it again in 15 days. In return, Henry III agreed, with the counsel of the bishops, to correct what was wrong in the administration.
1233Thursday SeptemberHenry III declared that the earl had satisfied him and invited Richard to the October council at Westminster. On route, Richard became suspicious and returned to Usk forming an alliance with Llewellyn of Wales.
1234FebruaryA meeting of the great council at Westminster. Henry confirmed the election of Edmund of Abingdon to the See of Canterbury. He then agreed to review his relations with his ministers and advisers, asking for time to consider the position.
1234Sunday April 2Edmund of Abingdon was consecrated at Canterbury.
1234Sunday April 9A meeting of the great council. The bishops reported on the terms of a truce they had negotiated with the marshal and Llewellyn. Henry accepted the terms and announced that his counsellors would be removed.
1234Sunday April 16Richard the marshal died of wounds which he had received in a dispute at the Curragh, Kildare. Henry III denounced and proclaimed the marshal's fellow counsellors. Special commissions were appointed to investigate their conduct and hear complaints against them.
1234MayAt a council in Gloucester the bishops interceded on behalf of the counsellors who were proscribed and hunted as traitors from place to place. Reconciliation between the king and the counsellors was finally effected and Gilbert Basset was restored to the Wiltshire manor.
1235-Henry received a gift of three leopards from the Emperor Frederick II and housed them in the Tower menagerie.
1236-The Citizens of London were granted the privilege of conveying the waters of the Tyburn in lead pipes to the City. The pipes began at what is now Stratford place north of Oxford Street and ran along the Tyburn before cutting across Piccadilly and down to Charing Cross. From there they ran along Fleet Street and across Fleet bridge into the City and ended in Cheapside.
1236-The church of St Leonard, Foster Lane was built or rebuilt in this year.
1236Monday January 14Henry III married Eleanora of Provence.

The coronation banquet of Henry III and Eleanor of provence.

1236Thursday February 14Henry III and Eleonora were crowned at Westminster. But the Mayor, Andrew Bukerel, was prevented, on Henry's orders, from performing his traditional duties at the ceremony.
1237-The public lavatory which had been erected by queen Eleanor at Queenhithe was repaired.
1237-There was severe flooding from Woolwich to Westminster.
1239Friday June 17Birth of Edward I.
1240-The new St Paul's, still incomplete, was re-dedicated by the bishop of London in the presence of the archbishop of Canterbury. Also completed in this year were the nave of St Bartholomew the Great in Smithfield, the choir of the Temple church and the rebuilt St Mary Ovarie in Southwark
1240-During building operations, the new western wall to the Tower collapsed.
1240-There was much excitement when a whale appeared in the Thames. It swm upriver, under London bridge pursued by sailors armed ropes slings and bows. They finally killed it at Mortlake.
1240Dec-25The Carmelites arrived in England, having been driven out of Mount Carmel by the Saracens.
1241-The Carmelites founded their priory off Fleet Street on the eastern side of the Temple precinct.
1241-The original keep at the Tower acquired its name of the White Tower when it was whitewashed in this year.
1241-The first reference to Paul's Cross occurs in this year when the citizens gathered there to give their assent to the king's departure for Gascony.
1242-There were more severe floods across London. The banks at Lambeth were particularly affected and the floodwaters reached a distance of six miles south of the river.
1242-The second Writ of Watch and Ward was issued.
1243-The wooden church of St Mary-at-Lambeth Tower was completed in this year.
1245-Henry III began his major rebuilding of Westminster Abbey and the new shrine for Edward the Confessor.
1245-Work began on the construction of the Great Conduit in Cheapside to hold the water brought from the Tyburn
1246-The City authorities leased Queenhithe for the annual sum of 50.
1246Monday February 12The property that was to become the Savoy was granted to Peter, earl of Richmond. See today's entry in the Gazettefor more information.
1247-The reform of the coinage was carried out under the direction of the king's brother, Richard of Cornwall.
1247Wednesday February 13There was a severe earthquake in London.
1248OctoberHenry III commanded that the October fair at Westminster should be extended from three to fifteen days. During the two weeks all other fairs in England were to be suspended and all shops in the City of London were to remain closed. The citizens were incensed that they had to travel out of the City to purchase their needs. Their humour was not helped by the heavy and incessant rain that fell during this first fair.
1250-A General Chapter of the Dominicans was held at the priory in Holborn. Four hundred members of the order attended.
1250-The parish church of St Martin, Ruislip was built in this year.
1251-The king of Norway made Henry a gift of a polar bear and a keeper. Both were housed in the Tower menagerie. The citizens of London were ordered to pay for a chain and muzzle but were allowed to watch the bear fish n the river.
1253-The third Writ of Watch and Ward was issued.
1253-The Augustinian friary at what became known as Austin Friars, off Broad Street, was founded by Humphrey de Bohun.
1253-The Market, held on Mondays, at Epping Heath was granted to Waltham Abbey together with an annual fair in July. The Tuesday Market at West Ham, also with an annual fair in July, was granted to Richard de Montfichet.
1254-Louis IX of France made Henry the gift of an elephant which was housed in the Tower menagerie. The sight of the beast astonished the Londoners. The City sheriffs were obliged to spend more that 22 in providing a house for it.
1257JanuaryThe Londoners were summoned by the king to a Folkmoot in St Paul's Churchyard to hear allegations against the City Magistrate. The aldermen refused to attend and the dispute with the king continued throughout the year. Henry also forced the citizens to spend large sums in repairing the walls of the City.
1257-The citizens were so exasperated with the king that when his half-brother was denounced as having injured several Londoners he was stoned to death.
1258-It was found that the men appointed to collect the money for the repair of the City walls had embezzled some of it. The Londoners again voiced their discontent with the king.
1258-There was a severe outbreak of famine and disease in London this year. As many as 20,000 are said to have died, including the bishop of London, Fulk Basset.
1259-Henry ordered another Folkmoot at St Paul's Cross at which every youth over twelve years was to swear loyalty to the king before an Alderman.
1259Friday April 12The Baronial Council was established and forced upon Henry III.
1259Thursday 2 MayRoyal letters patent defined the settlement with the Baronial Council and determined that a committee of 12 of the king's council and 12 magnates would undertake the reform of the realm.
1259Wednesday June 12The joint committee meet in Oxford and were to report before Christmas.
1259Tuesday July 23A charter, sealed by Henry, the prince Edward and several of the leading barons was presented at the Guildhall to obtain the seals of the mayor, aldermen and leading citizens of London. It alluded to a sworn and joint obligation to observe whatever the Baronial Council should provide.
1260-The Hanse merchants and their guildhall at what is now Cannon Street Station, were this year confirmed in their privileges.
1260Saturday March 27Henry III, ill in France, became suspicious of the baronial party and the intentions of the Prince Edward. He sent a secret order requiring a long list of individually named bishops, abbots, earls and barons to gather in London on April 25th with the armed following which they owe to him.
1260Tuesday April 10Henry ordered the Justiciar and the citizens of London to bar the city against Prince Edward and other suspected plotters. He wrote directly to the citizens of London claiming that the kingdom was unreasonably disturbed. Armed men were endangering the land and especially London.
1260Sunday April 25When Henry reached London, Edward rushed to greet him and the crisis was averted. However, Henry decided that Edward should spend some time out of England and the prince left for Gascony in October.
1261-There was a growing crisis between the king and the baronial council. Pope Alexander IV released him from his oath to observe the provisions of 1258 and foreign mercenaries were brought into England by the king in mid August.
1261Tuesday August 16Henry issued a stirring proclamation to his faithful men throughout the shires.
1261Thursday August 18Henry summoned about 150 of his tenants-in- chief and their service of armed knights to appear in London on Monday the 29th.
1261Sunday October 30A conference began in Kingston and a compromise was reached about the appointment of sheriffs. Effectively it was a surrender by the baronial party and it was ratified by Henry in December. Richard of Cornwall was instrumental in carrying out the terms of the agreement and the old order of Royal appointments was finally restored the following May.
1262-Outside the church of St Mary Colechurch, a citizen got into an argument with a Jewish money lender about interest. The Jew wounded the Londoner and was set upon by a mob and stabbed to death. The Jewry was then ransacked and many Jews injured.
1262-Licence was granted to the Black Friars for the enclosing of a lane in order to enlarge their House at Holborn.
1262-The citizens, led by the Lord Mayor Thomas FitzThomas protested about the erosion of their freedoms and rights. They felt free to attack Jews and foreigners and opened up many rights of way that had been stopped up by the guilds and other privileged individuals.
1263-The suppression of the baronial government had destroyed the expectations of the general populace concerning the redress of their grievances and the reform of local government. Discontent had simmered during 1262 but came to a head in 1263 around the figure of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester and brother-in-law to the king.
1263JanuaryThe Provisions of Westminster were re-issued in order to remove any doubt as to their status.
1263Thursday March 8 Henry ordered the barons, the citizens of London and the men of the shires to take an oath of fealty to him and to the Lord Edward as his heir.
1263MayThe new baronial party meet at Oxford. They demand the reinstatement of the 1258 Provisions of Oxford. They also demand that all opponents of the Provisions be treated as traitors and public enemies. When Henry refused these demands a widespread pogrom against all those who supported him against the Provisions was initiated.
1263MayThe Londoners took to the streets and Henry sought refuge in the Tower.
1263Friday June 29Prince Edward arrived in London with an armed force and ransacked the City's treasury in the headquarters of the Templars, seizing 10,000. The queen, on her way from the Tower to Windsor by boat was pelted with stones and spat upon by citizens gathered on London bridge.
1263Monday July 16Henry announced his acceptance of the Provisions of Oxford and De Montfort and his companions immediately took charge of the city and the Tower. Within a week the conduct of affairs had passed into their control.
1263AugustHenry left for France to seek the advise and aid of King Louis but undertook to return in time for the October parliament.
1263Sunday September 9Bishops and magnates met in St Paul's cathedral and the king's adherence to the terms of settlement was read with general assent.
1263Sunday October 7Henry arrived back in London but the parliament was a fiasco and Henry and Edward returned to Windsor.
1263Wednesday October 17Henry assured a number of barons that he "did not in any way propose to infringe the Provisions made at Oxford". The parties agreed to the election of Richard of Cornwall and other persons as "mediators of peace between the king and nobles of the realm". The mediators agreed to the compromise of submitting the matters at issue to the judgement of King Louis and De Montfort retired to Kenilworth.
1263-Henry rapidly built up his party at the expense of Simon de Montfort and he attempted to re-assert his authority in the Kentish ports. Rumours that he intended to once again bring in foreign mercenaries abounded and De Montfort returned to London.
1263NovemberWriting to the citizens of London from Croydon, Henry scornfully denied all rumours and denounced the disturbers of the peace. He ordered the citizens to eject them from the city. De Montfort and his small force had in fact crossed the Thames and taken up their quarters in Southwark. Four rich Londoners plotted with Henry to close the bridge behind them as the king and Edward advance on Southwark.
1263Tuesday December 11The bridge was closed behind De Montfort but the plot was betrayed and the Londoners broke down the gates and brought De Montfort and his men to safety.
1263Thursday December 13De Montfort and his party agreed to the form of compromise reached between King Louis and the mediators.
1263Sunday December 16Henry also agreed to the compromise.
1263Thursday December 20Henry issued a proclamation again denying all rumours and pledged himself always ready to observe the oath made at Oxford. He then left Windsor for France.
1264Saturday 12 January. Henry reached Amiens and was joined there by the representatives of the baronial party. The latter did not include De Montfort who was laid up at Kenilworth with a broken leg.
1264JanuaryThe Londoners answered the call of the bell of St Paul's and mustered in arms under the control of a sheriff and constable. They brushed aside the aldermen and their council and went on the rampage. Richard of Cornwall's manor at Isleworth was attacked and there were a number of fierce attacks on the Jewish inhabitants of the City.
1264Wednesday January 23Louis made his judgement, finding against the barons at all points. Everybody who had been a party to the terms of reference was declared to be free from any obligations to maintain the Provisions of Oxford. Since they had been annulled by the Pope, they were of no effect. The barons' claim to direct Henry's choice of his servants was inconsistent with his customary rights and with the conception of kingship. This became known as the Mise of Amiens and provoked widespread disturbances in England. The malcontents in London and the shires did not consider themselves bound by it.
1264Monday February 4War began in the Welsh Marches. On hearing that the rebels, led by the sons of Simon de Montfort, planned an attack on the lordship of Radnor, Richard of Cornwall ordered the destruction of all the bridges across the Severn with the exception of that at Gloucester. Edward landed with his Father in Kent and immediately hurried to the west forcing the rebels back to the Severn.
1264Wednesday March 5Edward was back in Gloucester castle. Using the bishop of Worcester as a mediator he persuaded Henry de Montfort to withdraw, under the terms of a truce which, he undertook, should be the prelude to a settlement.
1264Saturday March 8Henry arrived in Oxford, staying with the Dominicans in their House outside the south-western wall. He summoned his army to meet at Oxford on march 30. The baronial forces were known to be gathering in Northampton.
1264Thursday April 3Edward and Henry moved from Oxford towards Northampton.
1264Saturday April 5With the help of friends within the town, Edward broke into Northampton.
1264Sunday April 6(Passion Sunday). The castle surrendered and much violence was done to the town and townsmen. Many prisoners were taken, including Peter de Montfort and the younger of Simon who had left London when he heard that Northampton was under attack but returned to the capital when told of its surrender. Henry and Edward carried their campaign to the baronial midlands and Earl Simon built up his force in London.
1264Friday April 18(Good Friday) With the help of Gilbert de Clare, who was based at his castle in Tonbridge, De Montfort took the city of Rochester.
1264Saturday April 19The outer works of Rochester castle were taken and the siege of the great Tower begins.
1264AprilThe king hurried south in strength and the siege of Rochester was abandoned. Henry and Edward took Tonbridge and secured control of the Cinque Ports but Dover still held out.
1264MayDe Montfort rallied his forces in London and set out for Kent accompanied by an armed band of citizens. The armies met at Lewes and two days were spent in an effort to make peace.
1264Tuesday May 13During the night De Montfort moved his force to the Downs overlooking the town.
1264Wednesday May 14The battle resulted in a victory for De Montfort. Most of the 600 dead were either Londoners or men-at-arms.
1264Thursday 15 May A form of peace - the Mise of Lewes - was drawn up and sealed by Henry and Edward. The Earl brought Henry to London and lodged him in St Paul's. Edward and Richard of Cornwall were given as hostages and taken to Kenilworth.
1264Sunday June 22A parliament was assembled and appointed three Recorders who drew up a form of Government. Under its terms, a council of nine would be appointed by the Recorders to advise the king and three of these must always be in attendance on him to advise his every decision.
1264JulyQueen Eleanor and other royalist exiles in France gathered ships and troops in readiness for an invasion. A national rally against the danger was ordered.

The unpopular Eleanor of Provence.

1264Tuesday August 12Henry arrived in Canterbury and Edward was brought there from Kenilworth. The subsequent "Peace of Canterbury" was to form the basis for negotiations. This consisted of the "form of government" of the previous June with the significant preamble that it should remain in force throughout Henry's reign and until a date to be determined into Edward's reign. It was not well received by the exiles gathered at Boulogne.
1264Tuesday September 9New proposals were put forward and they, in turn, were revised a few days later. It was suggested that the barons' approval be submitted to the arbitration, in England, of two Englishmen and two Frenchmen. If no satisfactory conclusion was reached the Peace of Canterbury would stand.
1264SeptemberWhen the baronial representatives arrived in Boulogne negotiations proved impossible. This was mostly due to the attitude of the Papal legate, Guy Fulquois. On his arrival in France he had tried to act independently of Louis and the exiles in Boulogne. However, the barons refused him permission to enter England in July and when he finally went to Boulogne in August his tone had changed. He formally ordered the barons to admit him before October 1 or suffer excommunication and interdict. In addition, he fixed a term for the renunciation of the Provisions of Oxford. His growing antagonism to the barons now meant that De Montfort was left to try to unite England without reference to the exiles and hold by the Peace of Canterbury until a final settlement could be reached.
1264Tuesday October 21The Papal legate issued formal sentences of excommunication and interdict against the upholders of the Provisions of Oxford.
1264Friday December 12De Montfort subdued the royalist barons of the Welsh marches with the Covenant of Worcester which Prince Edward accepted at Kenilworth.
1264DecemberThe death of Urban IV resulted in the Papal legate being elected to the See of Peter as Clement IV.
1265Tuesday January 20A great parliament, which effectively gives a political character to the national rally, was convened in Westminster Hall with the intention of attempting to formulate a peace. This is taken as the first genuine representative Parliament.
1265Sunday March 8A form of peace was finally agreed. It defined the Lord Edward's status and obligations. He would be disinherited if he broke any of the conditions therein defined. De Montfort managed to hold the castle of Chester and ensured that royal strongholds in strategic positions were in safe hands without depriving Henry of their titles and prospective rights.
1265Tuesday March 10Edward and his fellow hostage, Henry of Almain, were returned to the king. Henry and his son swore to maintain the terms of settlement and to observe the Charter of Liberties.
1265Wednesday March 11The declarations of Henry and Edward were proclaimed in Westminster Hall. Nine bishops, declared transgressors against the Charters and the statutes made in 1264, were excommunicated. Every freeman was ordered to renew homage and fealty to the king saving all the articles of the peace.
1265AprilResentment against De Montfort led to dissension in the baronial camp and he marched to the Severn, taking Henry III with him. The armed forces of the shires of Worcester, Gloucester and Hereford and Hereford were ordered to attend the king at Gloucester on May 3.
1265MayThe men of the marches and the Severn Valley rose up in arms and some of the exiles landed in the lordship of Pembroke. The men of the Cinque ports were warned to be on the alert against other landings and sheriffs were ordered to arrest preachers of sedition and to suppress false rumours.
1265Thursday May 28The Lord Edward escaped from protective custody with the help of Thomas de Clare, one of his "minders". He began preparations to rescue Henry and is joined by Gloucester who had deserted De Montfort.
1265Tuesday August 4Edward defeated De Montfort's forces at Evesham. Henry was rescued and De Montfort slain. All baronial resistance crumbled.
1265Tuesday August 31A parliament was held at Kenilworth in order to attempt to settle all outstanding grievances.
1265Wednesday September 16Peace was publicly proclaimed but the entire country remained in a state of social confusion. Resistance in London was broken by the fear of a massed attack.
1265Tuesday October 13Henry celebrated the feast of St Edward at Westminster.
1265Thursday October 29The queen returned to England with the papal legate Ottobuono Feschi (who became Pope Adrian V in 1276). Also in the company were Tebaldo Visconti (Pope Gregory X 1271-1276)and Benedict Gaetani (Pope Boniface VIII 1293-1303).
1265Sunday October 31All problems were finally resolved and the so- called Dictum of Kenilworth was issued. This defined the ways in which the accomplices of Simon de Montfort might recover the lands seized by the crown in accordance with the ordinance of Winchester. However, rebels in Kenilworth and the Isle of Ely hold out.
1265OctoberHenry was determined to punish London for supporting De Montfort. The government of the City was taken into the kin's own hand and administered by a warden. The mayor, FitzThomas, was summoned to Windsor and there imprisoned, never to appear in public again. Some 60 of the most prominent citizens had their property seized and were reduced to beggary. The City as a corporate body was fined 20,000 marks, the income from which was given to the queen in a piece of vindictive irony. The mayoralty remained suspended for the next five years.
1265Tuesday December 1Ottobuono held an ecclesiastical council in London. He dealt with the bishops who had been most active in support of the Provisions of Oxford. The Bishop of Worcester died (in February 1266) before the process can be concluded but the Bishops of London, Lincoln, Chichester and Winchester were suspended and ordered to present themselves at the papal court.
1265Monday December 14Kenilworth finally surrendered but Ely, under John d'Eyvill continued to resist the settlement.
1266AprilLord Edward was given control of the foreign merchants after consultation with the merchants themselves. He had the right to grant or withhold licences to enter and trade in England and also to levy a general customs duty on imports and exports. He levied the tax and appointed collectors throughout England.
1267-Edward farmed out the import and export duties through the hithes to Italian merchants for 6,000 marks a year. The Londoners protested at having to make any contribution and were granted an exemption. The Italian merchant and financial companies went on to become the chief agents of the royal finances.
1267Friday April 8Earl Gilbert of Gloucester encamped at Southwark and entered the city on the following day. He was enthusiastically welcomed by the populace and held talks with Ottobuono in the church of the Holy Trinity, Aldgate.
1267Monday April 11John d'Eyvill left Ely with a number of supporters and marched for Southwark. The London Commune was restored and took full control of civic affairs under a chief bailiff chosen by Gloucester. Leading citizens who resisted were arrested. London remained in the hands of the rebels for two months. During that time, a second ditch was dug around the walls, access to the Tower was cut off and the Southwark end of the bridge was fortified.
1267MayThe papal legate found himself in a difficult position. He had been led to expect differently in his talks with Gloucester. He renewed the excommunication on John d'Eyvill and his companions and then moved out of London to the Cistercian abbey of Stratford Langthorn on the Lea.
1267Saturday May 7Henry joined the legate at Stratford Langthorne whilst Edward and his allies prepared to lay siege to London. However, few of the opposed parties have any wish for a costly and destructive fight in and around the capital and a settlement was finally reached.
1267Saturday June 18The king entered the city and a general peace was proclaimed. London received a partial pardon for its earlier treachery but not the full restoration of the Commune and Mayoralty.
1267Friday November 18A great council at Marlborough issued the Statute of Marlborough which included the terms of the provisions of Westminster as a permanent enactment.
1268Monday January 22An unusually high tide brought more flooding to London.
1268MarchAt the instigation of the Lord Edward, who was appointed warden of the City, the first step was taken to restore their normal status and liberties to the Londoners.
1268MayThe Goldsmiths and the Merchant Taylors were at loggerheads this year. Things came to a head with a violent altercation on the streets in which members of the other guilds became involved. At one stage there were 500 men were involved in the running battle through the streets and many were killed. An armed force had to be raised to put it down and thirteen of the ringleaders were executed.
1269Sunday October 13The new church at Westminster was dedicated and the relics of Edward the Confessor translated to the new shrine.
1269Monday October 14A parliament was held and was attended by representatives of all the important boroughs. The subject of a general tax to finance a crusade was discussed but not resolved.
1269NovemberThe weather turned very cold and the Thames froze over. It was not possible to bring ships up the river and merchandise had to be brought to the City by overland routes from the sea ports. The freeze lasted until the following February.
1270AprilA great Hoketide parliament, to which the king summoned "nearly all the bishops, earls, barons, knights and fee tenants of the whole of England" agreed a general tax of a twentieth of personal property. After its final ratification, nine bishops presided over a public recitation, at St Paul's cross, of the sentence of excommunication against transgressors of the Charters of Liberties (Magna Carta and the Charter of the Forest).
1270AprilThe full rights of the London commune were restored, including the4 Mayoralty but at an annual fee of 400. There was also an additional fine of 600 marks for the restoration of the charters.
1270Friday July 18Archbishop Boniface of Canterbury died in the Savoy. Edward attempted to have Robert Burnell (his future chancellor) elected to the see. The monks of Canterbury, however, elect their prior who was then rejected as unsuitable by the pope.
1270AugustThere were heavy rains throughout the summer and many crops rotted in the fields. London was gain flooded and there was famine in the City.
1270Wednesday August 20Edward left England to join King Louis of France on crusade.
1270SeptemberMargaret of Flanders seized the goods of many English, Welsh, Irish and Gascon merchants in payment of arrears in a pension owed to her by Henry III. She also ejected the merchants from Flanders. The English government immediately seized all Flemish merchandise and imposed an embargo on exports of wool to Flanders. The merchants in England were sworn to respect the embargo. This prohibition lasted until February 1278 but it did lead to a licensing system on the exports of wool and rigid control over the operations of the merchants. The leading London exporters were aldermen and sheriffs who derived much of their income from rents in London and other cities.
1271-The steeple of St Mary le Bow on Cheapside collapsed and a number of person were killed.
1271-In order to facilitate the construction of the new friary for the Austin Friars, the parish church of St Olave, Broad Street was demolished.
1271-Walter Hervey was elected Mayor, against the wishes of the elite guilds.
1272-Earliest mention of the Court of Arches which takes its name from the crypt of St Mary le Bow, where it sat. The church was one of the 13 Peculiars in the City, owned by the Archbishop of Canterbury and exempt from the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London. The court sat until 1847 when the Peculiars were abolished.
1272AprilRichard of Cornwall, brother of Henry III and King of the Romans, did.
1272OctoberThe re-election of Walter Hervy as Mayor was disputed by the elite guilds who took the matter to the king.
1272NovemberNews arrived that the pope has finally resolved the disputed succession at Canterbury with the appointment of Robert Kilwardby, the Dominican Provincial in England.
1272-The new Archbishop of Canterbury acquired land south of Ludgate and east of Baynard's castle.
1272-The First craft guilds were established in London. The first charter was to the Fishmongers Company.
1272Wednesday November 16Death of Henry III.
1272NovemberAfter the king's death it was agreed that Walter Hervy should continue in office as Mayor.
1272Sunday November 20Funeral of Henry III at Westminster Abbey.

The effigy of Henry III at Westminster Abbey.


The remainder of the thirteenth century

King JohnEdward I




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